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This blog may contain not-so-strong languages and slightly strong ecchi pictures. Please proceed with caution.

Wednesday, 29 April 2015

Korean Twisted Mass Media, Part VI: Kyunghyang Shinmun (A Progressive-leaned Newspaper which Previously affiliated with the Korean Catholics)


The Kyunghyang Shinmun (Hanja/Romanization: 京鄕新聞/Gyeonghyang Sinmun) is a major daily newspaper published in South Korea. The headquarters of this daily is located at 3 Jeongdong Street/Jeongdong-gil, Jeongdong 22-beonji, Seoul Jung-gu; not far from Gyeonghui Palace - one of the Five Jewel Palaces of Joseon Dynasty. The name literally means Urbi et Orbi Daily News.

Kyunghyang Shinmun was founded in 1946 by the Catholic Church, which explains its name. Before the Korean War, it was edited by Fr. Peter Ryang, a refugee from the North, and its circulation was 100,000. Kyunghyang Shinmun was temporarily closed down in May 1959 by the Syngman Rhee's administration on grounds of having printed "false editorials", but revived after the pro-democracy April Revolution of 1960. The newspaper is no longer associated with the Catholic Church.

It later came to be owned by Hanwha Group. Hanwha relinquished its control of the newspaper after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, at the same time as Hanhwa's competitor Hyundai gave up its own daily, the Munhwa Ilbo. In 1998, Kyunghyang Shinmun became an independent newspaper with employee ownership. The CEO is elected by the employees; the editor-in-chief, though appointed by the CEO, must be approved by a majority of the journalist-employees.

The newspaper employs 600 people, including 240 journalists and maintains foreign bureaus in Washington D.C., Tokyo and Beijing. It reports 1.3 million daily visitors to its website and 6.2 million daily page-views. The company also publishes a daily sports newspaper (Sports Kyunghyang/스포츠경향), a weekly news magazine (The Jugan Kyunghyang/주간경향) and a monthly lifestyle magazine for women (The Lady Kyunghyang/레이디경향).

Like the newer daily The Hankyoreh, Kyunghyang Shinmun leans toward anti-government reporting, describing itself as "moderate progressive". Two news press agencies, Hankyoreh and Oh My News banded up with the Kyunghyang Shinmun to form the alliance of anti-government reporting which is known as HanKyungOh (한경오).

Monday, 27 April 2015

Take Fivers: Poison (독약) by Jo Kwan-woo

Imagine if Sora Kasugano sings this song regarding to her resentment on Nao Yorihime.


널 용서할 수 없어/Neol yongseohal su eopseo
되돌릴 수도 없어/Doedollil sudo eopseo
독약 같은 그 사랑이/Dog-yak gat-eun geu sarang-i
내 심장에 박혀서/Nae simjang-e bakhyeoseo



또 다시 볼 수 없는/Tto dasi bol su eomneun
영원의 길 떠난 걸/Yeongwon-ui gil tteonan geol
잊지 못해, 용서 못해/Itji mothae, yongseo mothae
그리움에 지쳐 무너진 가슴아/Geurium-e jichyeo muneojin gaseum-a



나~/Na~
독약 같은 그 사랑/Dog-yak gat-eun geu sarang
나~/Na~
어떡해야 하나/Eotteokhaeya hana



어디서 우리 볼 수 있을까?/Eodiseo uri bol su isseulkka?
다시 사랑할 수 없는 나에 사람/Dasi saranghal su eomneun na-e sarang
서러워 흐른 내 눈물로/Seoreowo heureun nae nunmullo
너를 지울 수만 있다면/Neoreul jiul suman itdamyeon



나~/Na~
독약 같은 그 사랑/Dog-yak gat-eun geu sarang
나~/Na~
어떡해야 하나/Eotteokhaeya hana


널 용서할 수 없어/Neol yongseohal su eopseo
되돌릴 수도 없어/Doedollil sudo eopseo
독약 같은 그 사랑이/Dog-yak gat-eun geu sarang-i
내 심장에 박혀서/Nae simjang-e bakhyeoseo



또 다시 볼 수 없는/Tto dasi bol su eomneun
영원의 길 떠난 걸.../Yeongwon-ui gil tteonan geol...






Saturday, 25 April 2015

Serious Case of Environmental Issues in Korea: Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall in Masan Bay, Changwon, Southern Gyeongsang


Masan Bay (Hanja/Romanization: 馬山灣/Masan-man) is a long and narrow inlet of semi-enclosed bay located at the Southern Gyeongsang Provincial Capital, Changwon. because of its geographical features, the bay has shown a slow rate of water exchange and a trapping effect on contaminants discharged from surrounding industrial complexes and cities. The industrial complexes in Masan and Changwon-Central Districts which include petrochemical, heavy metal, electrical and plastic industries, as well as heavily populated districts in Changwon City are located adjacent to the bay. Masan bay has been listed as a special management coastal zone (SMCZ) by the Korean government since 1983, in association with increased contaminant levels. There are some reports of the distribution and characteristics of organic contaminants such as OCPs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and Nonylphenols (NPs) in Masan Bay environments. The studies which are conducted by Hong Seong-jin (홍성진) and Shin Kyung-hoon (신경훈) showed that Masan Bay is heavily polluted by toxic chemicals originating from surrounding industrial complexes and cities, similar to Lake Sihwa in Siheung City, Gyeonggi Province.

Spatial distributions of NPs in Masan Bay exhibit generally greater abundance in the inner bay than in the outer bay. NP concentrations measured in the Masan Bay environment during the past few years. Although there is insufficient data to understand the temporal trends of NPs in the Masan Bay environment, the concentrations of NPs in surface sediments show a gradually decreasing trend.

On the other hand, a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) which is located at Masan District and its effluent outlet is recognized as a point source of NPs into Masan Bay. The WWTP treats 260,000t d^-1 of industrial and domestic wastewater and discharges its effluent into Masan Bay via underground pipeline. Li and Moon investigated concentrations of NPs, PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs), PBDEs and fecal sterol in the WWTP outfall area to identify the impact of effluents. They collected surface sediment samples based on a fan-shaped sampling scheme from around the WWTP outfall. Concentrations of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in surface sediments were 68-600, 23-3,491 and 27-2,800 ng g^-1 dw in 2004 and 18-269, 18-576 and 4-258 ng g^-1 dw in 2005 respectively. There were clear decreasing trends for toxic organic contaminants such as NPs, PCSS/Fs, dl-PCBs and PBDEs with increasing distance from the WWTP outfall, suggesting that the WWTP discharge is the major source of these toxic substances, including NPs.

Temporal trends of NPs were recorded in sediment cores collected near the outfall of the WWTP. NPs increased gradually from the early 1990s, with the highest concentration detected using Pb-210 dating at 8-10cm depth, corresponding approximately to the year 2000 and subsequently decreased. There were similar trends in the PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentration profiles. These trends are closely related to the operation and efficiency of the WWTP. The WWTP was established in 1994 and was upgraded to use an activated sludge treatment method in the early 2000s. Spatial and vertical profiles of NPs around the WWTP in Masan Bay sediments suggested that discharges from the WWTP apparently contributed to NP contamination in the Unified Changwon City. Therefore, an adequate capacity of WWTPs needs to be established, as well as continuous monitoring for quality improvement of the aquatic improvement. 

Most chemicals in the water column could be assimilated by various aquatic organisms and concentrated or metabolized in their bodies. NP levels in mussels found in Masan Bay ranged from 51 to 289 ng g^-1 dw (average = 140 ng g^-1 dw), showing high correlation with water (r^2=0.98) and sediment (r^2=0.90) NP concentrations at the same site. Wang calculated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) and the average was found to be 2,990 obtained from NP concentrations in mussels and water.

Monday, 20 April 2015

Take Fivers: Loss (상실) by Jo Kwan-woo - Tribute to Kasugano Twins and Nao Yorihime


잘 지내나요/Jal jinaenayo
내가 없는 그 곳에서/Naega eomneun geu goseseo
아파하지 말아요/Apahaji marayo
영원한 나에 사랑 그대/Yeongwonhan na-e sarang geudae



살아가네요/Saraganeyo
그대가 내 곁에 없는데/Geudaega nae gyeot-e eomneunde
빗물속에서/Bimmulsogeseo
흔들리며 걸어 가요/Heundeullimyeon georeo gayo



듣고싶지 않아 모두 다 아픈 거짓말/Deutgosipji an-a modu da apeun geojitmal
내 사랑이 어찌 죄가 되나요/Nae sarang-i eojji joe-ga doenayo
알고 있었나요 추억에 깊은 흔적들/Algo isseonnayo chueog-e gip-eun heunjeokdeul
내겐 잔인한 상처란걸/Naegen janinhan sangcheoran-geol



제발, 용서하세요/Jebal, yongseohaseyo
내가 그댈 아프게했죠/Naega geudael apeugehaetjyo
서로 사랑했던 기억/Seoro saranghaetdeon gieok
잊을수도 없는 날/Ij-eulsudo eomneun nal



듣고싶지 않아 모두 다 아픈 거짓말/Deutgosipji an-a modu da apeun geojitmal
내 사랑이 어찌 죄가 되나요/Nae sarang-i eojji joe-ga doenayo
알고 있었나요 추억에 깊은 흔적들/Algo isseonnayo chueog-e gip-eun heunjeokdeul
내겐 잔인한 상처란걸/Naegen janinhan sangcheoran-geol



눈물이 나요/Nunmuri nayo
아무도 모르죠/Amudo moreujyo
내맘을 다해 그대에게 전하고 싶은말/Nae mam-eul dahae geudae-ege jeonhago sip-eunmal
하늘에서 다시 만나요/Haneur-eseo dasi mannayo
제발 날 용서해줘요/Jebal nal yongseohaejwoyo
영원한 내 사랑/Yeongwonhan nae sarang




Wednesday, 15 April 2015

Korean Joga Bonito, Part VIII: Jeonnam Dragons


Jeonnam Dragons (전남 드래곤즈) is a football club founded in 1994 in Gwangyang, Southern Jeolla Province which joined the K League Classic for the 1995 season at the same time as Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors, their Jeolla provincial rivals. Coincidentally, it was founded the same year that his classic rival, Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors. In January 6th 2014, the official name of Chunnam Dragons changed to Jeonnam Dragons in prior to the Revised Romanization of Korean Language.

Jeonnam was established on December 16th 1994. Chunnam appointed Jung Byung-Tak, former South Korean international left winger, as their first manager. On March 25th 1995, Jeonnam played their first ever K-League match. Chunnam's best season to date came in 1997 when they finished runners-up, behind Daewoo Royals in the K-League and also lifted the Korean FA Cup. 

In 1999, Jeonnam also came runners-up in the Asian Cup Winners Cup, beating J-League giant Kashima Antlers 4-1. They became Korean FA Cup champions for a second straight year in 2007. On December 27th 2007, Jeonnam appointed Park Hang-seo as new manager after former manager Huh Jung-moo was appointed as Korea Republic national football team manager.


Jeonnam Dragons' Home Pitch: Dragon Dungeon
Gwangyang Football Stadium (Hanja: 光陽蹴球專用球場), nicknamed "Dragon Dungeon", is a football-specific stadium in 1641 Baeg-un Avenue/Baegunno, Geumho-dong 697-beonji, Gwangyang City, Southern Jeolla Province. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Jeonnam DragonsDragon Dungeon was built in 1992 and completed in 1993. The stadium with the capacity of 13,496 spectators is accessible by using Interstate 10: Namhae Expressway to EXIT 15: Okgok IC or EXIT 16: Jinwol IC via Baealdo Island in Taein-dong.

Pungdo Island, Ansan, Gyeonggi Province: Home of Pungdo Spurge and First Naval Battle during Sino-Japanese War


Pungdo Island (Hanja: 豐島) is an island located 28km from Mainland Ansan and 24km from Daebu Island in Gyeonggi Province. Although Pungdo is located near to Dangjin City, Southern Chungcheong Province, the island is administered by the authority of Ansan City Hall and Ansan Danwon-gu Municipal Government. The principal legal precinct of this island is Pungdo-dong (풍도동/豐島洞) with its postal code; 425-350.

The name of Pungdo Island is taken from Japanese Maple Tree (Korean: 단풍나무) where this tree is abundantly available in this island. The Japanese who won the Naval Battle of Pungdo in the beginning of Sino-Japanese War (July 25th, 1894) started to call this island Pungdo (literally means as the Island of Abundance).

As the sea level around this island is deeper than that of other West Sea islands, a lot of fish including Rockfish and Trout are caught near the island, and mountain greens and medical herbs grow. In the spring, the entire island is covered with wild flowers which include the Pungdo Spurge, attracting many photographers. Visitors can take a ferry from Incheon-Yeonan Port Terminal or Daebu Island to Pungdo Island.


Details about the Battle of Pungdo
Both Qing China and Japan had been intervening in Korea against the Donghak Peasant Revolution. While China tried to maintain her suzerain relationship with Korea, Japan wanted to increase her sphere of influence. Both countries had already had troops in Korea as requested by different factions within the Korean government. Chinese troops from the Beiyang Army, stationed in Asan, south of Seoul, numbering 3,000 men in early July, could be effectively supplied only by sea through the Bay of Asan. This presented a situation very similar to the British position at the beginning of the Yorktown campaign during the American Revolution.

The Japanese plan was to blockade the entrance of the Asan Bay, while her land forces moved overland to encircle the Beiyang Army detachment in Asan before reinforcements arrived by sea.

Some amongst the Chinese Beiyang Fleet command were aware of this dangerous situation and had advocated either the withdrawal of troops further north to Pyongyang (captain of cruiser Jiyuan, Fang Boqian, the ranking Chinese officer in the Battle of Pungdo, among them), or the sailing the entire Beiyang fleet to Inchon as a deterrent against Japanese intentions. However, the Qing leadership was split between Viceroy Li Hongzhang’s basic instinct to protect his fleet from danger and Emperor Guangxu’s demand for a stronger stand. As a compromise, the detachment at Asan was to be reinforced for the time being under escort by ships already on station in Korean waters. Inaction paralyzed the Chinese command on the eve of war.

According to Chinese battle records, The Chinese ships, cruiser Jiyuan and gunboat Kwang-Yi, in port in Asan since 23 July, left on the morning of 25 July and were on their way to rendezvous with the troop transport ship Kowshing and Tsao-kiang en route from Tianjin. At 7:45 am, near Pungdo, a small island (also known as "Feng Island" in western sources sitting next to the two navigable channels out of the Asan Bay, in Korean territorial waters, the two Chinese ships were fired upon by three Japanese cruisers Akitsushima, Naniwa, and Yoshino. Chinese ships returned fire at 0752 hours.

According to Japanese records, at 0700 on 25 July, the Japanese cruisers Yoshino, Naniwa and Akitsushima, which had been patrolling in the Yellow Sea off of Asan, encountered the Chinese cruiser Jiyuan, and gunboat Kwang-yi (広乙/广乙). These vessels had steamed out of Asan in order to meet another Chinese gunboat, the Tsao-kiang (操江), which was convoying the transport Kowshing (高陞) toward Asan. The two Chinese vessels did not return the salute of the Japanese ships as required under International Maritime Regulations, and when the Japanese turned to the southwest, the Chinese opened fire.

The battle occurred at close range, and Jiyuen took severe damage and began to lose steering control, but one of the German military advisors aboard, Hoffman, managed to jury-rig a tiller under fire, and the vessel was able to maneuver. The timely arrival of the gunboat Kwang-yi distracted Naniwa, and Yoshino and Jiyuen used the opportunity to break off the engagement and escaped. Kwang-yi was stranded on some rocks, and its gunpowder magazine exploded. Yoshino pursued Jiyuen, but for uncertain reasons was unable to catch the slower vessel. In the meantime Tsao-kiang and the transport Kowshing, which was flying a British civil ensign and conveying some 1,200 Beiyang Army and stores, had the unfortunate timing of appearing on the scene. At approximately 0900 hours, Kowshing was ordered to follow the Japanese cruiser Naniwa to the main Japanese squadron. 

After a formal protest citing the neutrality of the British flag, the English captain, Thomas Ryder Galsworthy, agreed. However, the Chinese soldiers on board revolted, and threatened to kill the crew unless Galsworthy took them back to China. After four hours of negotiation, when the Beiyang troops were momentarily distracted, Galsworthy and the British crew jumped overboard and attempted to swim to the Naniwa, but were fired upon by the Chinese. Most of the sailors were killed, but Galsworthy and two crewmen were rescued by the Japanese. Naniwa then opened fire on the Kowshing, sinking her and her mutineers. A few on board (including German military advisor Major Constantin von Hanneken) escaped by swimming and was rescued by a local fisherman. The first officer of the Kowshing gave an interview to The Times on 25 October 1894 stating that the Chinese were distracted by a torpedo launched from the Naniwa, which failed to explode, and that he was only able to jump overboard after the Naniwa started shelling the Kowshing. While in the water, he was fired upon and wounded by the Chinese, but was rescued by the Japanese along with other European survivors. He also stated that Naniwa sunk two lifeboats full of Chinese troops. Only three out of the forty three crew of the Kowshing survived the sinking.

Chinese casualties were approximately 1,100, including more than 800 from the troop transport Kowshing alone, against none for the Japanese. Some 300 Chinese troops survived by swimming to nearby islands. At 1400 hours, the cruiser Akitsushima intercepted Tsao-kiang which was quickly captured.

The battle had a direct impact on the fighting on land. The reinforcements with twelve cannons on board Kowshing and other military supplies on board Tsao-kiang failed to reach Asan. And the outnumbered and isolated Beiyang Army detachment in Asan was attacked and defeated in the subsequent Battle of Seonghwan in Seonghwan-eup, Cheonan Seobuk-gu, Southern Chungcheong Province - four days later. Formal declarations of war came only on August 1, 1894, after the battle of Seonghwan.

Naniwa was under the command of Captain (later Fleet Admiral) Togo Heihachiro. The owners of the Kowshing, Jardine, Matheson & Company (better known for its role in the opium trade with China, protested the action in the British press and demanded compensation from the Japanese government. The public response to Japan having fired upon a vessel flying the British flag almost led to a diplomatic incident between Japan and Great Britain. Japan also came under criticism for having failed to make any effort to rescue any of the Chinese survivors of the sinking. However, calls for Japan to pay an indemnity ceased after British jurists ruled that the action was in conformity with International Law regarding the treatment of mutineers.

The sinking was also specifically cited by the Chinese government as one of the “treacherous actions” by the Japanese in their formal declaration of war against Japan.

One major result of this battle was the introduction of western rules of maritime prize into Japanese law. On August 21, 1894, a new Japanese law provided for the establishment of a Japanese prize court at Sasebo to judge on such matters.

In 2000, a Korean salvage company tried to salvage the wreck of Kowshing, claiming to investors that the ship contained a treasure of gold and silver bullion. The wreckage was destroyed in the operation, and only a few artifacts of little monetary value were discovered.

Tuesday, 14 April 2015

Royal Tomb of Empress Wondeok, Ganghwa County, Incheon Metropole: Mother of King Gojong Wang Cheol of Goryeo


Empress Wondeok of Yoo Clan (Hangul/Hanja: 원덕태후 유씨/元德太后 柳氏; Born: Unknown - Died: 1239) was the second consort of King Gangjong (강종왕/康宗王), the 22nd King of Goryeo Dynasty and mother of King Gojong Wang Cheol, the 23rd King of Goryeo Dynasty. She was known as Princess Yeondeok (연덕궁주) in 1212. She later changed her name into Queen Wondeok after her son, Wang Cheol ascended the throne as King Gojong.

Empress Wondeok lived during Goryeo Military Regime Timeline under the leadership of Choi Chung-heon (최충헌/崔忠獻) of Ubong Choi Clan (우봉 최씨/牛峰崔氏). King Gangjong and his father, King Myeongjong Wang Ho were routed to Ganghwa Island in the present-day Incheon Metropole by the military leader Choi Chung-heon. In 1210 Gangjong returned to the capital Gaegyeong (present-day Kaesong, DPRK), and he was given a royal title by King Huijong in the following year (1211). After Choi dethroned King Huijong as King of Goryeo on that year, Gangjong was placed on the throne.

Empress Wondeok was buried at the Goryeo Royal Tomb of Golleung (高麗坤陵) in Giljeong-ri san 75-beonji, Yangdo-myeon, Ganghwa County, Incheon Metropole. The tomb of the empress is located 2.8km north-east from Incheon Catholic University Ganghwa Campus at the neighboring village of Dojang-ri in the same commune.

Hakdong-Mongdol Beach, Geoje, Southern Gyeongsang: Peeble Beach in Yeongnam MIR


Surrounded by Mount Noja/노자산 (565m) and Mount Gara/가라산 (580m), Hakdong-Mongdol Beach or Hakdong Peeble Beach (Hanja: 鶴洞몽돌海水浴場) in 18-1 Hakdong 6-gil, Hakdong-ri 295-1 beonji, Dongbu-myeon, Geoje City, Southern Gyeongsang Province provides a cozy atmosphere. 

Hakdong was named so because its shape was said to be like a crane (in Korean "Hak") flying up to the sky. Compared to other beaches, it has small pebbles, "Mongdol" in Korean, spans a distance of about 1.2 km, is 50m wide and covers a 30,000 sq km area starting from Yongbawi Rock. The feeling one gets when walking on these pebbles is soothing and the sound of the waves are refreshing. You can also soothe your feet when you walk on the rocks and activate acupressure points on the soles of your feet. 

This beach is also famous for camellia habitat, which was designated as Natural Monument No. 233, along the 3km long beach. About 20cm long, colorful fairy pitts come in June, breed here and then leave in September. Wild camellia flowers start to bloom in February and they are in full bloom in mid March, creates a beautiful landscape. In the spring and fall, tourists come to see Haegeumgang and Hallyeo-Haesang National Marine Park. In summer, vacationers come from all over the country to enjoy swimming, sunbathing, water sports and the scenery. You can also see the Palsaek birds (eight-colored birds) that come here. These colorful birds can be seen from June to September. 

Hakdong Mongdol Beach has a lot of summer visitors and is the perfect place for vacationing families. The water is clear and clean, and setting up tents on the beach is possible. Near the beach, there are not only great restaurants specializing in sliced raw fish, but also restrooms and homestays which are well-equipped. There is also a beach festival every summer. An excursion ship starts at Hakdong and cruises towards Haegeumgang and Oedo Paridise Island. It would be romantic to take this ship through the crimson Haegeumgang at sunset.

Back to Business - My Fifth Semester was over!

Praise to the Lord - ALLAH the Almighty, I have finished my fifth semester in Port Dickson Polytechnic. Now, I have to submit hard-covered final project report and wait my final result for fifth semester. If I failed one of the subjects that I've taken in that semester, I will not eligible to proceed for the practical work in sixth semester unless if I completed 89 credit hours in order to achieve it. 

If this would be happened to me, I have to write a letter of disappointment to the practical workplace because the failure of one of the subjects taken in the last semester. Then, re-seat the failed papers until I pass for the practical work, in order to achieve full pledged 89 credit hours to proceed for practical.

Two-and-a-half-year I have spend my campus life in the Polytechnic, either I have faced sweet or bitter and gut-wrenching memories. I would like to thank you to all lecturers who guided me in achieving my higher aspiration as the assistant engineer. Insya-ALLAH, I will apply the knowledge that I've learned in the Polytechnic for my career purposes. 

From now on, starting from Black Day - Tuesday, 14th April 2015, 1146 hours KST, Moe-Korea Blog is returning to business after one busy and hectic month in my last semester. Please look forward for my next blog post.

Monday, 6 April 2015

Hiatus Intermission: First Blood has drawn during my Birthday.



April 6th remarks the first day of Final Examination in Port Dickson Polytechnic - goodness! It's my birthday! On the picture shows my first exam paper entitled Environmental Pollution and Control or colloquially known as EPC. Truthfully speaking, I didn't have any preparations to face this exam; I studied on the last minute along with my classmates in Polytechnic Grounds. I think this paper prompts me to think critically and logically though.

The exam was held at Dewan Wawasan (Main Hall of Port Dickson Polytechnic), started from 11.15 a.m to 1.15 p.m (+8), Malaysian Standard Time. On the first 15 minutes, I dazed out after hearing examination regulations. Ironically, I've fallen asleep after the exam starts! Then, I snapped out of it and started to write the answers. I finished answer all questions in an hour and half. It looks too damn easy, if I said so. 

1.15 p.m. I felt very relieved after the exam was finished for the first day. But, there are four papers to go and I have to beef 'em up for tomorrow and the day after tomorrow. Unfortunately, I have a day gap to prepare all those, except for my fourth paper - Structural Analysis Part II, gaping six days after Traffic Engineering. 

I hope that I will graduate with flying colors in this year. Wish me luck, folks!  

Thursday, 2 April 2015

Archives of Samil Movement: Gimi Independence Declaration 1919 (Repost and Enhanced Version)

We know that Suzu is blind. The Hangul-Hanja based mixed script of The Gimi Korean Independence Declaration of 1919 which is engraved on the monument helps her to indicate the Hanja Characters one by one, using her hands.  

Middle Korean Version-Mixed Script/근대국어-국한문혼용판
吾等은 慈에 我朝鮮의 獨立國임과 朝鮮人의 自主民임을 宣言하노라. 此로써 世界萬邦에 告하야 人類平等의 大義를 克明하며, 此로써 子孫萬代에 誥하야 民族自存의 正權을 永有케 하노라.

半萬年歷史의 權威를 仗하야 此를 宣言함이며, 二千萬民衆의 誠忠을 合하야 此를 佈明함이며, 民族의 恒久如一한 自由發展을 爲하야 此를 主張함이며, 人類的良心의 發露에 基因한 世界改造의 大機運에 順應幷進하기 爲하야 此를 提起함이니, 是이 天의 明命이며, 時代의 大勢이며, 全人類共存同生權의 正當한 發動이라, 天下何物이던지 此를 沮止抑制치 못할지니라.

舊時代의 遺物인 侵略主義, 强權主義의 犧牲을 作하야 有史以來累千年에 처음으로 異民族箝制의 痛苦를 嘗한지 今에 十年을 過한지라. 我生存權의 剝喪됨이 무릇 幾何이며, 心靈上發展의 障碍됨이 무릇 幾何이며, 民族的尊榮의 毁損됨이 무릇 幾何이며, 新銳와 獨創으로써 世界文化의 大潮流에 寄與補裨할 奇緣을 遺失함이 무릇 幾何이뇨.

噫라, 舊來의 抑鬱을 先唱하려 하면, 時下의 苦痛을 擺脫하려 하면, 將來의 脅威를 芟除하려 하면, 民族的良心과 國家的廉義의 壓縮銷殘을 興奮伸張하려 하면, 各個人格의 正當한 發達을 遂하려 하면, 可憐한 子弟에게 苦恥的財産을 遺與치 안이하려 하면, 子子孫孫의 永久完全한 慶福을 導迎하려 하면, 最大急務가 民族的獨立을 確實케 함이니, 二千萬各個가 人마다 方寸의 刃을 懷하고, 人類通性과 時代良心이 正義의 軍과 人道의 干戈로써 護援하는 今日, 吾人은 進하야 取하매 何强을 挫치 못하랴. 退하야 作하매 何志를 展치 못하랴.

丙子修好條規以來時時種種의 金石盟約을 食하얏다 하야 日本의 無信을 罪하려 안이 하노라. 學者는 講壇에서, 政治家는 實際에서, 我祖宗世業을 植民地視하고, 我文化民族을 土昧人遇하야, 한갓 征服者의 快를 貪할 뿐이오, 我의 久遠한 社會基礎와 卓락한 民族心理를 無視한다 하야 日本의 少義함을 責하려 안이 하노라.

自己를 策勵하기에 急한 吾人은  他의 怨尤를 暇치 못하노라. 現在를 綢繆하기에 急한 吾人은 宿昔의 懲辨을 暇치 못하노라. 今日吾人의 所任은 다만 自己의 建設이 有할 뿐이오, 決코 他의 破壞에 在치 안이하도다. 嚴肅한 良心의 命令으로써 自家의 新運命을 開拓함이오, 決코 舊怨과 一時的感情으로써 他를 嫉逐排斥함이 안이로다.

舊思想, 舊勢力에 羈靡된 日本爲政家의 功名的犧牲이 된 不自然, 又不合理한 錯誤狀態를 改善匡正하야, 自然, 又合理한 正經大原으로 歸還케 함이로다.

當初에 民族的要求로서 出치 안이한 兩國倂合의 結果가, 畢竟姑息的威壓과 差別的不平과 統計數字上虛飾의 下에서 利害相反한 兩民族間에 永遠히 和同할 수 업는 怨溝를 去益深造하는 今來實積을 觀하라. 勇明果敢으로써 舊誤를 廓正하고, 眞正한 理解와 同情에 基本한 友好的新局面을 打開함이 彼此間遠禍召福하는 捷徑임을 明知할 것 안인가. 

또, 二千萬含憤蓄怨의 民을 威力으로써 拘束함은 다만 東洋의 永久한 平和를 保障하는 所以가 안일 뿐 안이라, 此로 因하야 東洋安危의 主軸인 四億萬支那人의 日本에 對한 危懼와 猜疑를 갈수록 濃厚케 하야, 그 結果로 東洋全局이 共倒同亡의 悲運을 招致할 것이 明하니, 今日吾人의 朝鮮獨立은 朝鮮人으로 하야금 正當한 生榮을 遂케 하는 同時에 日本으로 하야금  邪路로서 出하야 東洋支持者인 重責을 全케 하는 것이며, 支那로 하야금 夢寐에도 免하지 못하는 不安, 恐怖로서 脫出케 하는 것이며, 또 東洋平和로 重要한 一部를 삼는 世界平和, 人類幸福에 必要한 階段이 되게 하는 것이라. 이 엇지 區區한 感情上問題이리오.

아아, 新天地가 眼前에 展開되도다. 威力의 時代가 去하고 道義의 時代가 來하도다. 過去全世紀에 鍊磨長養된 人道的精神이 바야흐로 新文明의 曙光을 人類의 歷史에 投射하기 始하도다. 新春이 世界에 來하야 萬物의 回蘇를 催促하는도다. 凍氷寒雪에 呼吸을 閉蟄한 것이 彼一時의 勢이라 하면 和風暖陽에 氣脈을 振舒함은 此一時의 勢이니, 天地의 復運에 際하고 世界의 變潮를 乘한 吾人은 아모 躊躇할 것 업스며, 아모 忌憚할 것 업도다.

我의 固有한 自由權을 護全하야 生旺의 樂을 飽享할 것이며, 我의 自足한 獨創力을 發揮하야 春滿한 大界에 民族的精華를 結紐할지로다.

吾等이 慈에 奮起하도다. 良心이 我와 同存하며 眞理가 我와 幷進하는도다. 男女老少 업시 陰鬱한 古巢로서 活潑히 起來하야 萬彙群象으로 더부러 欣快한 復活을 成遂하게 되도다. 千百世祖靈이 吾等을 陰佑하며 全世界氣運이 吾等을 外護하나니, 着手가 곳 成功이라. 다만, 前頭의 光明으로 驀進할 따름인뎌.


公約三章
  • 一. 今日吾人의 此擧는 正義, 人道, 生存, 尊榮을 爲하는 民族的要求이니, 오즉 自由的精神을 發揮할 것이오, 決코 排他的感情으로 逸走하지 말라.
  • 一. 最後의 一人까지, 最後의 一刻까지 民族의 正當한 意思를 快히 發表하라.
  • 一. 一切의 行動은 가장 秩序를 尊重하야, 吾人의 主張과 態度로 하야금 어대까지던지 光明正大하게 하라.


孫秉熙  吉善宙  李弼柱  白龍成  金完圭  金秉祚  金昌俊  權東鎭  權秉悳  羅龍煥  羅仁協  
梁旬伯  梁漢默  劉如大  李甲成  李明龍  李昇薰  李鍾勳  李鍾一  林禮煥  朴準承  朴熙道 
朴東完  申洪植  申錫九  吳世昌  吳華英  鄭春洙  崔聖模  崔 麟  韓龍雲  洪秉箕  洪其兆



Middle Korean Version-Hangul Script/근대국어-한글판
오등은 자에 아조선의 독립국임과 조선인의 자유민임을 선언하노라. 차로써 세계만방에 고하야 인류평등의 대의를 극명하며, 차로써 자선만대에 고하야 민족자존의 정권을 영유케 하노라.

반만년역사의 권위를 장하야 차를 선언함이며, 이천만민중의 성충을 합하야 차를 포명함이며, 민족의 항구여일한 자유발전을 위하야 차를 주장함이며, 인류적양심의 발로에 기인한 세계개조의 대기운에 순응병진하기 위하야 차를 제기함이니, 시이 천의 명명이며, 시대의 대세이며, 전인류공존동생권의 정당한 발동이라, 천하하물이던지 차를 저지억제치 못할지니라.

구지대의 유물인 침략주의, 강권주의의 희생을 작하야 유사이래누천년에 처음으로 이민족겸제의통고를 상한지 금에 십년을 과한지라. 아생존권의 박상됨이 무릇 기하이며, 김령상발전의 장애됨이 무릇 기하이며, 민족적존영의 훼손됨이 무릇 기하이며, 신예와 독창으로써 세계문화의 대조류에 기여보비할 기연을 유실함이 무릇 기하이뇨.

희라, 구래의 억울을 선창하려 하면, 시하의 고통을 파탈하려 하면, 파탈하려하면 장래의 협위를 삼제하려 하면, 민족적양심과 국가적염의의 압축소잔을 흥분신장하려 하면, 각개인격의 정당한 발달을 수하려 하면, 가련한 자제에게 고치적재산을 유여치 안이하려 하면, 자자손손의 영구완전한 경복을 도영하려 하면, 최대급무가 민족적독립을 확실케 함이니, 이천만각개가 인마다 방촌의 인을 회하고, 인류통성과 시대양심이 정의의 군과 인도의 간과로써 호원하는 금일, 오인은 진하야 취하매 하강을 좌치 못하랴. 퇴하야 작하매 하지를 잔치 못하랴.

병자수호조규이래시시종종의 금석맹약을 식하얏다 하야 일본의 무신을 죄하려 안이 하노라. 학자는 강단에서, 정치가는 실제에서, 아조종세업을 식민지시하고,아문화민족을 토매인우하야, 한갓 정복자의 쾌를 탐할 뿐이오, 아의 구원한 사회기조를 탁락한 민족심리를 무시한다 하야 일본의 소의함을 책하려 안이 하노라.

자기를 책려하기에 급한 오인은  타의 원우를 가치 못하노라. 현재를 주무하기에 급한 오인은 숙석의 징변을 가치 못하노라. 금일오인의 소임은 다만 자기의 건설이 유할 뿐이오, 결코 타의 파괴에 재치 안이하도다. 엄숙한 양심의 명령으로써 자가의 신운명을 개척함이오, 결코 구원과 일시적감정으로써 타를 질축배척함이 안이로다.

구사상, 구세력에 기미된 일본위정가의 공명적희생이 된 부자연, 우불합리한 착오상태를 개선광정하야, 자연, 우합리한 정경대원으로 귀환케 함이로다.

당초에 민족적요구로서 출치 안이한 양국병방의 결과가, 필경고식적위압과 차별적불평과 통계숫자상허식의 하에서 이해상반한 양민족간에 영원히 화동할 수 업는 원구를 거익심조하는 금래실적을 관하라. 용명과감으로써 구오를 확정하고, 진정한 이해와 동정에 기본한 우호적신국면을 타개함이 피차간원화소복하는 첩경임을 명지할 것 안인가. 

또, 이천만함분축원의 민을 위력으로써 구속함은 다만 동양의 영구한 평화를 보장하는 소이가 안일 뿐 안이라, 차로 인하야 동양안위의 주축인 사억만지나인의 일본에 대한 위구와 시의를 갈수록 농후케 하야, 그 결과로 동양전국이 공도동망의 비운을 초치할 것이 명하니, 금일오인의 조선독립은 조선인으로 하야금 정당한 생영을 수케 하는 동시에 일본으로 하야금  사로로서 출하야 동양지지차인 중책을 전케 하는 것이며, 지나로 하야금 몽매에도 면하지 못하는 불안, 공포로서 탈출케 하는 것이며, 또 동양평화로 중요한 일부를 삼는 세계평화, 인류행복에 필요한 계단이 되게 하는 것이라. 이 엇지 구구한 감정상문제이리오.

아아, 신천지가 안전에 전개되도다. 위력의 시대가 거하고 도의의 시대가 내하도다. 과거전세기에 연마장양된 인도적정신이 바야흐로 신문명의 서광을 인류의 역사에 투사하기 시하도다. 신춘이 세계에 내하야 만물의 회소를 최촉하는도다. 동빙한설에 호흡을 페칩한 것이 피일시의 세이라 하면 화풍난양에 기맥을 진서함은 차일시의 세이니, 천지의 복운에 제하고 세계의 변조를 승한 오인은 아모 주저할 것 업스며, 아모 기탄할 것 업도다.

아의 고유한 자유권을 호전하야 생왕의 낙을 포향할 것이며, 아의 자족한 독창력을 발휘하야 춘만한 대세에 민족적정화를 결뉴할지로다.

오등이 자에 분기하도다. 양심이 아와 동존하며 진리가 아와 병진하는도다. 남녀노소 업시 음울한 고소로서 활발히 기래하야 만휘군상으로 더부러 흔쾌한 복활을 성수하게 되도다. 천백세조령이 오등을 음우하며 전세계기운이 오등을 외호하나니, 착수가 곳 성공이라. 다만, 전두의 광명으로 맥진할 따름인뎌.


공약삼장
  • 一. 금일오인의 차거는 정의, 인도, 생존, 존영을 위하는 민족적요구이니, 오즉 자유적 정신을 발휘할 것이오, 쾌코 배타적감정으로 일주하지 말라.
  • 一. 최후의 일인까지, 최후의 일각까지 민족의 정당한 의사를 쾌히 발표하라.
  • 一. 일체의 행동은 가장 질서를 존중하야, 오인의 주장과 태도로 하야금 어대까지던지 광명정대하게 하라.


손병희  길선주  이필주  백용성  김완규  김병조  김창준  권동진  권병덕  나용환  나인협
양순백  양한묵  유여대  이갑성  이명룡  이승훈  이종훈  이종일  임예환  박준승  박희도
박동완  신홍식  신석구  오세창  오화영  정춘수  최성모  최 린  한용운  홍병기  홍기조



Modern Korean Version/한국어-현대어판
우리는 오늘 우리 한국이 독립국이며 한국인이 자주민임을 선언합니다. 이를 세계만방에 알려 인류 평등의 큰 진리를 환하게 밝히며, 이를 자손만대에 알려 민족의 자립과 생존의 정당한 권리를 영원히 누리게 하려는 것입니다.

반만년 역사의 권위에 의지하여 이를 선언하며, 이천만 민중의 정성을 모아 이를 두루 밝히며, 영원한 민족의 자유와 발전을 위하여 이를 주장하며, 인류가 가진 양심의 발로에 뿌리박은 세계 개조의 큰 기운에 발맞추어 나아가기 위하여 이를 제기하니, 이는 하늘의 명백한 명령이며 시대의 대세이며 전 인류 공동 생존권의 정당한 발로이기에 세상의 어떤 힘도 이를 막거나 억누르지 못할 것입니다.

낡은 시대의 유물인 침략주의와 강권주의의 희생이 되어 유사 이래 수천년 만에 처음으로 다른 민족의 압제에 뼈아픈 고통을 당한 지 이미 십 년이 지났습니다. 그동안 우리의 생존권을 빼앗겨 잃은 것이 그 얼마이며, 정신상 발전에 장애를 받은 것이 그 얼마이며, 민족의 존엄과 영광에 손상을 입은 것이 그 얼마이며, 새롭고 날카로운 기운과 독창력으로 세계 문화에 이바지하고 보탤 기회를 잃은 것이 그 얼마이겠습니까!

슬픈 일입니다. 오랜 억울함을 떨치고 일어나려면, 현재의 고통을 헤쳐 벗어나려면, 장래의 위협을 없애려면, 땅에 떨어진 민족의 양심과 국가의 체면과 도리를 떨쳐 얻으려면, 각자의 인격을 정당하게 발전시키려면, 가엾은 아들딸들에게 괴롭고 부끄러운 현실을 물려주지 않으려면, 자자손손에게 영원하고 완전한 행복을 안겨 주려면, 가장 크고 급한 일이 바로 민족의 독립을 확실하게 하는 것입니다. 이천만 겨레마다 마음속에 칼을 품은 듯 굳게 결심하니, 인류 공통의 성품과 이 시대의 양심이 정의라는 군사와 인도주의라는 창과 방패로 호위하고 도와주고 있는 오늘날, 우리는 나아가 싸우니 어느 강도를 꺾지 못하겠습니까! 물러가 일을 꾀하니 무슨 뜻인들 펴지 못하겠습니까!

병자수호조약 이후 때때로 굳게 맺은 갖가지 약속을 배반하였다 하여 일본의 배신을 죄주려는 것이 아닙니다. 일본 제국주의의 학자들은 강단에서, 통치배들은 실생활에서 우리의 선조들이 대대로 닦아 온 찬란한 위업을 식민지로 삼아 문화민족인 우리를 야만족같이 대우하여 다만 정복자의 쾌감을 탐할 뿐이요, 우리의 오랜 사회 기초와 뛰어난 민족의 성품을 무시한다 해서 일본의 무도함을 꾸짖으려는 것도 아닙니다.

스스로를 채찍질하고 격려하기에 바쁜 우리는 남을 원망할 겨를이 없습니다. 현재를 꼼꼼이 준비하기에 급한 우리는 묵은 옛 일을 응징하고 잘못을 가릴 겨를이 없습니다. 오늘 우리에게 주어진 임무는 오직 자기 건설이 있을 뿐이지, 결코 남을 파괴하는 데 있는 것이 아닙니다. 엄숙한 양심의 명령으로 자신의 새로운 운명을 개척하고자 하는 것뿐이지, 결코 묵은 원한과 일시적 감정으로 남을 시샘하여 쫓아내고 물리치려는 것이 아닙니다.

낡은 사상과 낡은 세력에 얽매여 있는 일본 제국주의 통치배들의 부귀공명의 희생이 되어 압제와 수탈에 빠진 이 비참한 상태를 바르게 고쳐서 억압과 착취가 없는 공정하고 인간다운 큰 근본이 되는 길로 돌아오게 하려는 것입니다.

처음부터 우리 민족의 요구에서 나온 것이 아닌 우리나라의 침략, 강정이이었으므로 그 결과는 마침내 위압으로 유지하려는 일시적 방편과 민족 차별의 불평등과 거짓으로 꾸민 통계 숫자에 의하여 서로 이해가 다른 두 민족 사이에 영원히 화해할 수 없는 원한의 구덩이를 더욱 깊게 만들고 있는 오늘날의 실정을 보십시오!

용감하고 현명하게 그리고 과감하게 과거의 잘못을 뜯어 고치고, 참된 이해와 선린을 바탕으로 우호적인 새로운 관계를 만드는 것이 서로 간에 화를 쫓고 복을 불러들이는 지름길인 줄을 밝히 알아야 할 것이 아니겠습니까!

또한 원한과 분노에 쌓인 이천만 민족을 폭력으로 구속하는 것은 오직 동양의 영구한 평화를 보장하는 길이 아닐 뿐만 아니라, 이로 인하여 동양의 안전과 위태함을 좌우하는 사억 중국인들은 일본에 대한 두려움과 시기가 갈수록 두터워진 결과, 동양의 온 판국이 함께 넘어져 망하는 비참한 운명이 될 것이 분명하니, 오늘 우리 한국의 독립은 한국인으로 하여금 정당한 생존과 번영을 이루게 하는 동시에 일본으로 하여금 그릇된 길에서 벗어나 동양의 선진후원국으로서의 중대한 책임을 온전히 이루게 하는 것이며, 중국으로 하여금 악몽처럼 괴로운 일본 침략의 공포로부터 벗어나게 하는 것이며, 또한 동양의 평화로 중요한 일부를 삼는 세계 평화와 인류 행복에 필수적인 받침대가 되게 하는 것입니다. 이 어찌 사소한 감정상의 문제이겠습니까!

아! 새로운 세상이 눈앞에 펼쳐지고 있습니다. 무력의 시대가 가고 도덕의 시대가 오고 있습니다. 과거 한 세기 동안 갈고 닦으며 키우고 기른 인도주의 정신이 이제 막 새로운 문명의 밝은 빛을 온 인류 역사에 비추기 시작하였습니다. 새 봄이 온 세계에 돌아와 만물의 소생을 재촉하고 있습니다.

혹심한 추위가 사람의 숨통을 막아 꼼짝 못하게 한 것이 저 지난 한때의 형세라면 화창한 봄바람과 따뜻한 햇볕에 원기와 혈맥을 떨쳐 펴는 것은 이때의 형세이니, 천지의 돌아온 운수에 접하고 세계의 새로 바뀐 조류를 탄 우리는 아무 주저할 것도 없으며 아무 거리낄 것도 없습니다.

우리가 본래부터 지녀 온 권리를 지키고 온전히 하여 생명의 왕성한 번영을 마음껏 누릴 것이며, 우리의 풍부한 독창력을 발휘하여 봄기운 가득한 천지에 순수하고 빛나는 민족 문화를 찬란히 꽃피우게 할 것입니다.

우리는 오늘 떨쳐 일어났습니다. 양심이 우리와 함께 있으며, 진리가 우리와 함께 나아가고 있습니다. 남녀노소 할 것 없이 어둡고 답답한 옛 보금자리로부터 분연히 일어나 삼라만상과 더불어 기쁘고 유쾌한 부활을 이루게 되었습니다. 억만대의 조상님들의 신령이 보이지 않는 가운데 우리를 돕고 온 세계의 새로운 형세가 우리를 밖에서 호위하고 있으니, 시작이 곧 성공입니다. 다만 앞길의 광명을 향하여 힘차게 곧장 나아갈 뿐입니다.


공약 삼장
  • 하나. 오늘 우리의 이번 거사는 정의와 인도주의 그리고 생존과 영광을 갈망하는 민족 전체의 요구이니 오직 자유의 정신을 발휘할 것이요, 결코 배타적인 감정으로 정도에서 벗어난 잘못을 저지르지 맙시다.
  • 하나. 최후의 한 사람까지 최후의 한 순간까지 민족의 정당한 의사를 흔쾌히 발표합시다.
  • 하나. 모든 행동은 질서를 가장 존중하여 우리의 주장과 태도를 어디까지나 떳떳하고 정당하게 합시다.


손병희  길선주  이필주  백용성  김완규  김병조  김창준  권동진  권병덕  나용환  나인협
양순백  양한묵  유여대  이갑성  이명룡  이승훈  이종훈  이종일  임예환  박준승  박희도
박동완  신홍식  신석구  오세창  오화영  정춘수  최성모  최 린  한용운  홍병기  홍기조



English Version (영어판)
We
 hereby
 declare
 that
 Korea
 is
 an
 independent
 state
 and
 that
 Koreans
 are
 a
 self‑governing
 people.
We proclaim
 it 
to 
the 
nations 
of 
the 
world 
in 
affirmation 
of 
the 
principle 
of
 the 
equality 
of 
all 
nations, 
and 
we proclaim
 it 
to
 our 
posterity, 
preserving 
in 
perpetuity 
the 
right
 of
 national 
survival. 
We 
make 
this 
declaration 
on 
the 
strength 
of
 five
 thousand 
years 
of 
history 
as
 an 
expression
 of 
the 
devotion 
and 
loyalty 
of 
twenty 
million 
people.
 We 
claim
 independence
 in
 the
 interest
 of
 the
 eternal
 and
 free
 development
 of
 our
 people
 and
 in accordance 
with
 the
 great 
movement 
for
 world
 reform
 based
 upon 
the 
awakening 
conscience 
of 
mankind. This
 is
 the
 clear 
command 
of 
heaven, 
the 
course 
of 
our 
times,
 and
 a
 legitimate
 manifestation 
of 
the
 right
 of
 all
 nations
 to
 coexist
 and
 live 
in 
harmony.
 Nothing 
in
 the
 world 
can
 suppress 
or 
block 
it.


For
 the
 first
 time
 in
 several
 thousand
 years,
 we
 have
 suffered
 the
 agony
 of
 alien
 suppression
 for 
a 
decade, becoming
 a
 victim 
of
 the 
policies 
of 
aggression 
and 
coercion,
 which
 are
 relics 
from
 a
 by gone 
era.
 How
 long have 
we
 been 
deprived 
of 
our
 right 
to 
exist? 
How
 long
 has 
our 
spiritual 
development 
been
 hampered? 
How long
 have 
the 
opportunities 
to 
contribute
 our 
creative 
vitality 
to 
the 
development 
of
 world 
culture 
been 
denied us?


Alas! 
In 
order 
to 
rectify 
past 
grievances,
 free
 ourselves 
from 
present
 hardships,
 eliminate
 future
 threats, stimulate
 and
 enhance
 the
 weakened
 conscience
 of
 our
 people,
 eradicate
 the
 shame
 that
 befell
 our
 nation,
 ensure
 proper
 development
 of
 human
 dignity,
 avoid
 leaving
 humiliating
 legacies
 to
 our
 children,
 and
 usher
 in
 lasting
 and
 complete
 happiness
 for
 our
 posterity,
 the
 most 
urgent 
task
 is 
to 
firmly
 establish 
national independence. 
Today 
when 
human
 nature
 and
 conscience 
are
 placing 
the 
forces 
of 
justice 
and 
humanity 
on our
side,
 if
 every
one
 of
 our
 twenty 
million 
people
 arms
 himself
 for 
battle,
 whom
 could 
we
 not 
defeat 
and 
what could
 we
 not
 accomplish?



We
 do 
not
 intend 
to 
accuse 
Japan 
of 
infidelity 
for 
its 
violation 
of 
various
 solemn 
treaty
 obligations
 since
 the
 Treaty
 of
 Amity
 of
 1876.
 Japan’s
 scholars
 and
 officials,
 indulging
 in
 a
 conqueror’s 
exuberance, 
have denigrated
 the
 accomplishments
 of
 our
 ancestors 
and 
treated
 our
 civilized
 people
like
 barbarians.
 Despite
 their
 disregard
 for
 the
 ancient
 origins
 of
 our
 society
 and
 the 
brilliant
 spirit 
of
 our
 people, 
we
 shall 
not 
blame Japan;
 we
 must
 first 
blame 
ourselves
 before
 finding
 fault 
with
 others.
 Because
 of
 the
 urgent
 need
 for
 remedies for
 the
 problems
 of
 today,
 we
 cannot 
afford 
the 
time 
for 
recriminations
 over 
past 
wrongs.

Our 
task 
today 
is 
to 
build 
up
 our 
own 
strength,
 not 
to 
destroy
 others.
 We 
must 
chart 
a
 new 
course 
for ourselves 
in
 accord
 with
 the
 solemn
 dictates 
of 
conscience, 
not 
malign 
and
 reject
 others
 for
 reasons
 of
 past enmity
 or
 momentary
 passions.
 In
 order
 to
 restore
 natural
 and 
just
 conditions,
 we
 must 
remedy
 the 
unnatural and 
unjust 
conditions 
brought
 about 
by
 the 
leaders
 of
 Japan,
 who
 are
 chained
 to
 old 
ideas
 and
 old
 forces
 and victimized
 by
 their
 obsession
 with
 glory.

From
 the 
outset 
the 
union 
of 
the
 two
 countries 
did 
not 
emanate
 from
 the 
wishes 
of 
the
 people,
and 
its 
outcome 
has 
been 
oppressive 
coercion, 
discriminatory 
injustice, 
and 
fabrication
 of
 statistical
 data,
 thereby
 deepening
 the
 eternally 
irreconcilable chasm
of
ill 
will
 between
 the
 two
 nations. 
To 
correct 
past 
mistakes 
and open 
a
 new
 phase 
of
 friendship 
based 
upon 
genuine
 understanding 
and 
sympathy
—
is
 this 
not 
the 
easiest 
way to
 avoid
 disaster 
and
 invite
 blessing?
 The 
enslavement
 of
 twenty 
million 
resentful 
people
 by
 force
 does 
not contribute
 to
 lasting 
peace
 in 
the 
East. 
It
 deepens
 the
 fear 
and 
suspicion 
of 
Japan 
by 
the 
four
 hundred 
million Chinese 
who
 constitute
 the 
main
 axis
 for
 stability 
in
 the
 East,
 and 
it
 will 
lead
 to
 the
 tragic
 downfall
 of
 all
 nations 
in
 our
 region.
 Independence
 for
 Korea
 today
 shall
 not
 only
 enable 
Koreans
 to
 lead
 a
 normal,
 prosperous
 life,
 as
 is
 their
 due;
 it
 will
 also
 guide
 Japan
 to
 leave
 its
 evil
 path
 and
 perform
 its
 great
 task
 of
 supporting
 the
 cause
 of
 the
 East,
 liberating
 China
 from
 a
 gnawing
 uneasiness
 and
 fear
 and
 helping
 the
 cause
 of 
world 
peace
 and 
happiness
 for 
mankind, 
which
 depends
 greatly
 on
 peace
 in
 the
 East.
 How
 can
 this
 be
 considered
 a
 trivial
 issue
 of
 mere
 sentiment?


Behold!
 A
 new
 world 
is
 before
 our
 eyes.
 The
 days
 of
 force
 are
 gone,
 and
 the
 days
 of
 morality
 are
 here.
 The
 spirit
 of
 humanity,
 nurtured
 throughout
 the
 past
 century,
 has
 begun
 casting 
its
 rays 
of
 new 
civilization 
upon human 
history. 
A
 new
 spring
 has
 arrived
 prompting
 the 
myriad
 forms
 of 
life
 to
 come
 to 
life
 again.
 The
 past was
 a
 time
 of
 freezing
 ice
 and
 snow,
 stifling
 the
 breath
 of
 life;
 the
 present
 is
 a
 time
 of
 mild
 breezes
 and
 warm
 sunshine,
 reinvigorating 
the 
spirit.
 Facing
 the
re turn
 of
 the 
universal
 cycle,
 we 
set 
forth
 on
 the
 changing
 tide 
of the 
world. 
Nothing 
can 
make 
us 
hesitate 
or 
fear.


We 
shall
 safe guard
 our
 inherent 
right 
to 
freedom 
and 
enjoy 
a 
life
 of
 prosperity; 
we 
shall
 also 
make 
use 
of our 
creativity, 
enabling 
our 
national 
essence
 to 
blossom 
in 
the
 vernal 
warmth.
 We
 have 
arisen 
now. Conscience
 is
 on 
our 
side, 
and 
truth 
guides 
our 
way. 
All 
of 
us, 
men 
and
 women, 
young 
and 
old, 
have
 firmly left 
behind
 the 
old 
nest 
of 
darkness
 and 
gloom 
and 
head
 for
 joyful
 resurrection
 together
 with
 the
 myriad
 living
 things.
 The
 spirits
 of
 thousands
 of
 generations
 of
 our
 ancestors
 protect
 us;
 the
 rising
 tide
 of
world
 consciousness 
shall
 assist
 us.
 Once
 started,
we
 shall 
surely 
succeed.
 With 
this 
hope
 we
 march 
forward.


Three
 Open
 Pledges

  • Our
 action
 today
 represents
 the 
demand
 of
 our
 people
 for
 justice,
 humanity,
 survival,
 and
 dignity.
 It
 manifests
 our
 spirit
 of
 freedom
 and
 should
 not
 engender
 anti foreign
 feelings.

  • To 
the
 last 
one 
of 
us 
and 
to 
the 
last 
moment
 possible, 
we
 shall 
unhesitatingly 
publicize 
the 
views 
of 
our people, 
as 
is
 our 
right.

  • 

All
 our
 actions
 should
 scrupulously
 uphold
 public
 order,
 and
 our
 demands
 and
 our
 attitudes
 must 
be honorable
 and
 upright.


Signed by,
Son Byeong-hee  Gil Seon-joo  Lee Pil-joo  Paik Yong-sung  Kim Wan-kyu  Kim Byung-jo  Kim Chang-joon  Kwon Dong-jin  Kwon Byung-duk
Na Yong-hwan  Na In-hyup  Yang Soon-baik  Yang Han-mook  Yoo Yeo-dae  Lee Kap-sung  Lee Myung-ryong  Lee Seung-hoon  
Lee Jong-hoon  Lee Jong-il  Lim Ye-hwan  Park Joon-seung  Park Hee-do  Park Dong-wan  Shin Hong-shik  Shin Seok-koo  Oh Se-chang  
Oh Hwa-young  Jung Choon-soo  Choi Sung-mo  Choi Rin  Han Yong-un  Hong Byung-ki  Hong Gi-jo