This blog may contain not-so-strong languages and slightly strong ecchi pictures. Please proceed with caution.

Monday, 12 January 2015

Korean Republic's Presidential X-Files, Part VI: Roh Tae-woo - President Chun's Faithful Dog and the Korean President who finished to pay massive corruption fine due to his presidency

Roh Tae-woo (Hangul/Hanja/Romanization: 노태우/盧泰愚/Noh Tae-woo; born December 4th 1932 at SinYong-dong, Daegu Dong-gu), is a former South Korean politician and ROK Army general who served as the sixth president of South Korea from 25 February 1988 to 25 February 1993. He is the member of Gyoha Roh Clan (교하 노씨/交河盧氏), originated from Gyoha-eup, Paju City, Gyeonggi Province.

Roh befriended Chun Doo-hwan while in high school in Daegu. He graduated in February 1955 with a Bachelor of Science degree and a commission as an Army 2nd Lieutenant in the 11th class of the Korea Military Academy (KMA).

A member of the army from 1955, Roh rose steadily through the ranks and was promoted to major general and the commander of White Horse Division in 1979. A member of the Hanahoe, a secret military group, he gave critical support to a coup later that year in which Chun became the de facto ruler of South Korea. Roh was a military general when he helped Chun lead troops to the Gwangju Democratization Movement in 1980.

Chun forced his way into the presidency years later when he retired from the army and Roh became a key official in Chun's government. Most notably, he oversaw preparations for the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, which he officially declared open.

In June 1987, Chun named Roh as the presidential candidate of the ruling Democratic Justice Party. This was widely perceived as handing Roh the presidency, and triggered large pro-democracy rallies in Seoul and other cities in the 1987 June Democracy Movement.

In response, Roh made a speech on June 29 promising a wide program of reforms. Chief among them were a new, more democratic constitution and popular election of the president. In the election, the two leading opposition figures, Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung (both of whom later became presidents), were unable to overcome their differences and split the vote. This enabled Roh to win by a narrow margin and become the country's first cleanly elected president.

Roh's rule was notable for hosting the Seoul Olympics in 1988 and for his foreign policy of nordpolitik, which represented a major break from previous administrations. True to his word, he remained committed to democratic reforms. He also met with President Corazon Aquino for a series of talks between the Philippines and South Korea for economic, social and cultural ties, supporting Filipino athlete Leopoldo Serantes in the Olympics, and to discuss Unification talks to end North Korea's hostilities after the Korean War.

In 1993, Roh's successor, Kim Young-sam, led an anti-corruption campaign that saw Roh and Chun Doo-hwan on trial for bribery. Ironically, Kim had merged his party with Roh's in a deal that enabled him to win the election. The two former presidents were later separately charged with mutiny and treason for their roles in the 1979 coup and the 1980 Gwangju massacre.

Both were convicted in August 1996 of treason, mutiny and corruption; Chun was sentenced to death, later commuted to life imprisonment, while Roh's 22½-year jail sentence was reduced to 17 years on appeal. Both were released from prison in December 1997, pardoned by then-president Kim Young-sam.

Roh has also admitted to corruption 16 years after being in office and is scheduled to repay illegally gained wealth of W24 billion (US$1=W1,118) of a W262.9 billion fine for corruption in office, at the age of 81. A staggering $21,466,905 of a total of $235,152,057 owed to the nation. On September 2013, Roh has settled an old debt to the Korean Republic and finally repaid the 23 billion won in unpaid fines he owes for corruption charges.