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Thursday, 28 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XXIII: Royal Underwater Tomb of King Munmu the Great, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - the Great Unifier of Silla


King Munmu the Great of Silla (Hangul/Hanja: 문무대왕/文武大王; Born: 626 – Died: 681) (reigned: 661–681) whose born as Kim Beop-min (김법민/金法敏) was the thirtieth king of Silla and First King of Post-Sillan Unification. He is usually considered to have been the first ruler of the Unified Silla period. Munmu was the son of King Taejong-Muyeol the Great and Queen Munmyeong of Gimhae Kim Clan, who was the younger sister of Kim Yu-shin. Under his father's reign, he held the office of pajinchan, who apparently was responsible for maritime affairs, and played a key role in developing the country's diplomatic links with Tang China.

King Munmu took the throne in the midst of a long conflict against Baekje and Goguryeo, shortly after General Gyebaek and Baekje had been defeated at Sabi by General Kim Yu-shin in 660. In these struggles, Silla was heavily aided by the Tang. The first years of his reign were spent trying to defeat Goguryeo, following an abortive attempt in 661. Finally, in 667, he ordered another attack which led to the defeat of Goguryeo in 668. After the small isolated pockets of resistance were eliminated, Munmu was the first ruler ever to see the Korean peninsula completely unified.

King Munmu then faced the challenge of freeing his country from Tang domination. After the fall of Goguryeo, Tang created the Protectorate General to Pacify the East and attempted to place the entire Korean peninsula, including Silla, under its rule. To prevent this, Munmu forged alliances with Goguryeo resistance leaders such as Geom Mojam and Anseung, and launched a frontal attack on the Tang forces occupying former Baekje territories. The struggle lasted through the early 670s.

In 674, Tang and its former ally, Silla, were in constant battle, as King Munmu had taken over much of former Baekje and Goguryeo territory from the T'ang and fostered resistance against them. Emperor Gaozong, in anger, arbitrarily declared King Munmu's brother Kim Inmun the king Munmu and commissioned Liu Rengui with an army to attack Silla. However, King Munmu formally apologized and offered tribute, Emperor Gaozong ordered a withdrawal and recalled Kim Inmun.

In 675, Li Jinxing (李謹行) reached Silla territory with Mohe forces that submitted to Tang. However, the Tang forces were defeated by the Silla army at the Maeso fortress (Tang sources claim that the Tang forces won this and other battles in Silla).

Emperor Gaozong ordered withdrawal of Tang forces from the Korean Peninsula entirely and moved the Protectorate General to Pacify the East to Liaodong, allowing Silla to eventually expel Tang out of the Korean Peninsula and unify the parts of the peninsula south of the Taedong River. This victory, and the maintenance of Silla's independence, is generally regarded as a critical turning point in Korean history.

Munmu ruled over unified Silla for twenty years, until he fell ill in 681. On his deathbed, he left his last will and testament, and abdicated to his son, Prince Sinmun. Before he died he said: "A country should not be without a king at any time. Let the Prince have my crown before he has my coffin. Cremate my remains and scatter the ashes in the sea where the whales live. I will become a dragon and thwart foreign invasion." King Sinmun did as his father asked, and scattered his ashes over Daewangam (the Rock of the Great King), a small rocky islet a hundred metres or so off the Korean coast. Moreover, King Sinmun built the Gomun Temple (the Temple of Appreciated Blessing) and dedicated it to his father, he built a waterway for the sea dragon to come to and from the sea and land, and he built a pavilion, Eegun, overlooking the islet so that future kings could pay their respects to the great King Munmu.

In a dream, King Munmu and the famous general Kim Yu-shin appeared to King Sinmun and said to him: "Blowing on a bamboo flute will calm the heavens and the earth." King Sinmun awoke from the dream, rode out to the sea and received the bamboo flute Monposikjuk. It was said that the blowing of the bamboo flute invoked the spirits of King Munmu and General Kim Yu-shin and would push back enemy troops, cure illnesses, bring rain during drought and halt the rains in floods.

On the bus from Gyeongju to Bonggil-ri 26-beonji, Yangbuk-myeon, the sight of the vast blue sea spread before your eyes will leave you breathless. As you gaze at the glittering blue sea from Bonggil Beach, a small but particularly beautiful islet catches your eye. This little rocky islet is the Royal Underwater Tomb of King Munmu the Great, a Sillan King who unified the three kingdoms and became the 30th ruler of the Silla Kingdom. The king gave specific instructions to Kim Jeong-myeong (the future King Sinmun) to be buried in the East Sea after his death so that he would become a dragon and protect Silla from Japanese intruders. 

The rocky island, about 200m in circumference, is divided by a cross-shaped waterway, forming a pool at the center, at the bottom of which is a granite 3.6 meters long, 2.9 meters wide and 0.9 meters thick. Legend has it that the remains of King Munmu’s cremated body are buried under this rock. Historians still debate whether the ashes of the King Munmu were scattered or stored in an urn and placed under the granite. The beauty of the landscape of the underwater tomb reaches its peak in autumn.

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XXII: Royal Tomb of King Jinpyeong, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - Father of Queen Seondeok


King Jinpyeong of Silla (Hangul/Hanja: 진평왕/眞平王; Born: 565? - Died: 632, Reigned: 579-632), whose born as Kim Baek-jeong (김백정/金伯淨) was the 26th king of the Silla Dynasty, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. King Jinpyeong followed in the footsteps of his predecessor, King Jinji, by reorganizing the central ruling system of Silla. Upon the onset of a multitude of conflicts between Baekje and Goguryeo, He sent emissaries to improve relations and strengthen ties between Silla and the Chinese dynasties Sui and Tang. He is also known for his promotion of Buddhism as a spiritual guide for the kingdom and encouraging Buddhist teachings.

His father, Crown Prince Dongryun, is the first son of King Jinheung and his mother Lady Mano, the daughter of Galmunwang Kim Reepjong. According to the 12th Century history book Samguk Sagi, he was big in stature with a notable face, possessed great determination and sharp intelligence as a youth. He ascended to the throne when King Jinji died in 579. He married queen Maya, the daughter of Galmunwang Bokseung. King Jinpyeong was succeeded by his daughter, Kim Deok-man a.k.a Queen Seondeok. Another daughter, Princess Cheonmyeong of Silla, was the mother of King Taejong-Muyeol the Great. According to records in Samguk Yusa, a third daughter Princess Seonhwa of Silla, married King Mu of Baekje (historians consider it unlikely to be true, given the hostilities between the rival kingdoms). King Jinpyeong also had other sons and daughters through different wives and concubines.

King Jinpyeong succeeded his uncle King Jinji in 579 when King Jinji was dethroned by opposing nobles (especially Lady Mishil) in the fourth year of his reign. As King Jinpyeong ascended to the throne at the age of 13, the state affairs were mainly managed by powerful ministers (members of the Hwabaek) led by the Sangdaedeung. In the political turmoil, the Hwabaek set on reorganizing the government and administration bodies, measures continued by the adult king, who also supported the rearrangement of the state from an expansion-oriented system to a bureaucratic political system. Buddhism was embraced during this era, as King Jinpyeong actively sent envoys and monks to China to study and help in diplomatic relations. Buddhism in Silla developed as a strong nation-protecting religion.

King Jinpyeong appointed competent new people in important offices as he began his rule and carried out reformations. He placed government official Ichan Noribu (이찬 수을부/伊飡 首乙夫) at the highest rank of Sangdaedeung to look after state affairs and in 580, the second year of his reign, appointed Ichan Hujik (후직/后稷) as head of the military. King Jinpyeong relied heavily on these two heads of office and was able to solidify his kingdom on both internal affairs and international relations. He also gave the rank of Galmunwang to his two brothers, solidifying power and support in his court.

King Jinpyeong continued to restructure and reorganize during his reign; in 581 he set up Wihwabu (위화부/位和府), an administration department to manage government officials and personnel, and in 583 Seonbuseo (선부서/船府署), a department for the management of the country's ships. He established an independent era reign name in 584, the department Jobu (조부/調府) to overlook taxes and obligatory labor, and Seungbu (승부/乘府) to manage wagons and coaches. Three officials were appointed to manage the major three palaces in 585, and in 586 the department Yebu (예부/禮部) was established to overlook rituals and ceremonies. In 588, he placed Ichan Sueulbu (이찬 수을부/伊飡 首乙夫) as the highest government official of Sangdaedeung, and a special department that looked after foreign diplomats, Yeonggaekbu (영객부/領客府) was set up in 591.

The King also made reforms in the regional counties and prefecture system. New district Bukhansanju (북한산주/北漢山州) was set up in preparation of attacks from Goguryeo in 604, and in 614 Ilseonju (일선주/一善州) was set up in preparation against Baekje.

In 622, King Jinji's son Kim Yong-chun was appointed as the first Naeseongsasin (내성사신/內省私臣), an official who looks after the management of the three major palaces. The reformations continued with the department of the palace guards Siwibu (시위부/侍衛府); the department Sangsaseo (상사서/賞賜署), which looks after national heroes and their families; and Daedoseo (대도서/大道署) which looked after affairs regarding Buddhism.

King Jinpyeong was a fervent advocate for Buddhism and many monks made travels to China during his rule while serving diplomatic roles. The monk Jimyeong (지명/智明) who went to China's Chen Dynasty in 585 to study Buddhism returned in 602 with emissaries, and the monk Wonkwang (원광/圓光), who had gone to study in China in 589, also returned with emissaries in 600. The monk Damyuk (담육/曇育) also went to study at the Sui Dynasty in 596, with emissaries and gifts sent from King Jinpyeong.

Emissaries to China including Buddhist monks were continuously sent during King Jinpyeong's reign, and the two countries remained on amicable terms. In 608, when Silla was under attack from Baekje and Goguryeo, King Jinpyeong asked for Sui's aid, with requests written by the monk Wonkwang. Sui complied and joined forces with Silla in their attacks of Goguryeo, and in 613 Emperor Yang of Sui sent emissaries to Silla who participated in Buddhist ceremonies held by monk Wonkwang at Hwangnyong Temple.

Diplomatic relations with China continued throughout the Sui Dynasty and the following Tang Dynasty. Gifts were sent with emissaries to Tang in 621 and the Emperor Gaozu sent silks, folding screens of art with an official statement in return. These diplomatic relations continued in the following years and Silla used this relation to help their defense against Goguryeo by asking for Tang's assistance. Emperor Gaozu of Tang sent governors to both Silla and Goguryeo in 626 to bring about truce in the two countries, albeit briefly.

Although King Jinpyeong focused on reinforcing defense by building forts and fortresses, and strengthening the military system, Silla was in constant conflict with its two neighbors, Baekje and Goguryeo. In 602, Baekje troops attacked the fortress Amak (아막성/阿莫城) but were turned back, and in 603 Gogguryeo attacked the fortress at Bukhansan (북한산성/北漢山城) but were defeated when King Jinpyeong himself joined the battle.

Baekje continued with their attacks in 605, with continuous attacks from Goguryeo as well. King Jinpyeong sent the monk Wonkwang to Sui with request for aid against these attacks in 608. The aid from Sui came after Silla had lost many people and fortresses, and ultimately the joined forces failed in deterring Goguryeo's attacks.

Conflicts with Baekje escalated in 611, when they attacked the fortress of Gajam (가잠성/椵岑城) and claimed it after a brutal battle of 100 days. Baekje continued with their attacks, including the fortress of Mosan (모산성/母山城) in 616, Neungnohyeon (늑노현/勒弩縣) in 623, and the three fortresses of Sokham (속함성/速含城), Gijam (기잠성/歧暫城), and Hyeolchaek (혈책성/穴柵城)in 624.

In 626 Baekje attacked the fortress of Jujae (주재성/主在城), and two additional fortresses were taken with many people taken hostage in 627. In 628, Silla defeated Baekje at the fortress of Gajam and in 629 generals Kim Yong Chun (김용춘), Kim Seo Hyeon (김서현), and Kim Yushin (김유신) - great grandson of ex-King Guhyeong-Guhae of Geumgwan Gaya conquered Goguryeo's fortress of Nangbi (낭비성/娘臂城).

The continuous battles with Baekje and Goguryeo took its toll on Silla and its people. Drought, famine and disquiet took over the land. Different political views within the ruling nobility were frequent; when King Jinpyeong decided his daughter Princess Deokman as his heir the division grew even deeper, as many nobles were opposed to the idea of having a queen.

Political dissension reached its peak in May 631, when Ichan Chilsuk (이찬 칠숙) and Achan Seokpum (아찬 석품) plotted an uprising. The revolt was discovered in advance and both were executed; Chilsuk was beheaded in public and his relatives executed, while Seokpum was captured and executed by soldiers after running away. With the rebellion appeased, the power was left mainly in the hands of the King's supporters (the most important of them was Kim Yushin, commander in chief of the royal army from 629), and it was in this political atmosphere that Princess Deokman was able to become Queen. King Jinpyeong died in January 632, in the 54th year of his reign. He is buried in Bomun-dong 608-beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang Province. His tomb was designated as 180th historical landmark by the Korean government in 1969.

There is a story of King Jinpyeong's jade belt in the book Samguk Yusa, where the belt is said to be given from the heavens. In 579, when King Jinpyeong ascended to the throne, angels landed on the palace gardens and gave King Jinpyeong a gift from the Jade Emperor. King Jinpyeong always wore this belt in rituals and ceremonies to the heavens. Along with the 9 story pagoda and statue of Buddha at Hwangnyong Temple, the jade belt is considered as one of the three main treasures of Silla. After the fall of Silla in 935, King Gyeongsun gave the belt to the Founder of Goryeo Dynasty, King Taejo Wanggeon.

The first record of coal in Korea is said to be the mention in Samguk Sagi, where there is a description of a "fire burning under the ground of Mojiak (모지악/毛只嶽) for 9 months during the reign of King Jinpyeong in the year 609". It is assumed that Mojiak is the present region of Yeongil (present-day Pohang City), Northern Gyeongsang, where brown coal is excavated.

Sunday, 24 August 2014

Korean Twisted Mass Media, Part II: The Chosun Ilbo and TV Chosun


The Chosun Ilbo (literally "Korea Daily") is one of the major newspapers in South Korea. With a daily circulation of over 2,200,000, the Chosun Ilbo has undertaken annual inspections since the Audit Bureau of Circulations was established in 1993. The name of newspaper is bestowed from the former dynasty of Chosun a.k.a Joseon (1392~1910; from King Taejo Yi Seong-gye to Emperor Sunjong-Yunghui of Korean Empire) and current name of North Korea (DPRK).

Chosun Ilbo and its subsidiary company, Digital Chosun operates the Chosun.com news website, which also publishes web versions of the newspaper in English, Chinese, and Japanese. The Chosun Ilbo Main Office is located at Taepyeongno 1-ga 61-beonji, Seoul Jung-gu with its postal code: 100-756.

Chosun.com is ranked as the No.1 Korean news website by the Internet survey company Rankey.com. Besides the daily newspaper, the company also publishes the weekly Jugan Chosun, the monthly Wolgan San (lit. Monthly Mountain), and other newspapers and magazines. Subsidiaries include Digital Chosun, Wolgan Chosun, Edu-Chosun, ChosunBiz and TV Chosun.

The Chosun Ilbo Establishment Union was created in September 1919, and the Chosun Ilbo company was founded on March 5th, 1920. The newspaper was critical of, and sometimes directly opposed to, the actions of the Japanese government during Japanese colonial rule (1910–1945).

On August 27, 1920, the Chosun Ilbo was suspended after it published an editorial heavily criticizing the use of excessive force by the Japanese police against Korean citizens. This was the first in a string of suspensions. On September 5th 1920, three days after the first suspension was lifted, the newspaper published an editorial entitled "Did the Japanese central governing body shut down our newspaper?" For this the Chosun Ilbo was given an indefinite suspension.

In June 1923, Chosun Ilbo celebrated its one-thousandth issue. It had achieved many milestones including being the first newspaper in Korea to publish both morning and evening editions, send international correspondents to Russia, and publish cartoons. However, in that same month, it was given its third, indefinite suspension by the Japanese government for printing an editorial opposing Japanese rule of Korea.

In 1927, the Chosun Ilbo's editor and publisher were arrested. The editor was also the chief staff writer. The offense in this case was an editorial describing the mistreatment of prisoners by the colonial government. In May of the same year, in response to an editorial criticizing the deployment of troops into Shandong, the Chosun Ilbo was suspended for a fourth time for 133 days. The publisher and chief staff writer, An Jae-hong, were once again imprisoned.

After these events, the Chosun Ilbo remained at the forefront of events, trying to improve general public life and sponsoring collaborative events. This was a turbulent period; within the space of three years, the president was replaced three times. On December 21st 1935, in opposition to compulsory Japanese education and plans to assimilate the Korean people and language, the Chosun Ilbo published 100,000 Korean-language textbooks nationwide.

Over the years, the Chosun Ilbo also started to publish many side publications. One of these was a monthly publication of current events called Youth Chosun, the first of its kind in Korea. Others included its sister publication, Jogwang.

In the summer of 1940, after issue number 6923, the paper was declared officially discontinued by the Japanese ruling government. In the twenty years since its founding, the paper had been suspended by the Japanese government four times, and its issues confiscated over five hundred times before 1932. Because of bankruptcy, ownership changed hands, and the news organization fell under tighter control of the Japanese to become one of the most influential organizations to collaborate with the colonial government. When Korea gained independence in Augsut 15th 1945 (Gwangbokjeol), the Chosun Ilbo came back into publication after a five year, three month hiatus.

Korean Twisted Mass Media, Part I: Korea JoongAng Daily and JTBC


JoongAng Ilbo (Hanja: 中央日報) is a daily newspaper published in Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the three biggest newspapers in South Korea. The paper also publishes an English edition, Korea JoongAng Daily, in alliance with the International New York Times. The main office of JoongAng Ilbo is located at 88 Seosomun Avenue/Seosomunno, Sunhwa-dong 7-beonji, Seoul Jung-gu with its postal code: 100-759.

It was first published on September 22nd 1965 by Lee Byung-chul, the founder of Samsung Group which once owned the TongYang Broadcasting Company (TBC). In 1980, JoongAng Ilbo gave up TBC and TBC merged with KBS. JoongAng Ilbo is the pioneer in South Korea for the use of horizontal copy layout, topical sections, and specialist reporters with investigative reporting teams. Since April 15th 1995, JoongAng Ilbo has been laid out horizontally and also became a morning newspaper from then on.

The Korea JoongAng Daily is the English language version of the newspaper, and it is one of three English-language daily newspapers in South Korea, along with The Korea Times and The Korea Herald. It runs mainly news and feature stories by staff reporters, and some stories translated from the Korean language newspaper. As of March 18th 2007, it has produced a Sunday edition called JoongAng Sunday.

It also publishes a United States edition, with branches from Toronto to Buenos Aires. Its parent company, Joongang Media Network (JMNet) holds publication rights to Korean editions of Newsweek and Forbes magazine as well as 25% of the shares of JTBC cable TV.

JTBC a.k.a JoongAng-TongYang Broadcasting Corporation (Hangul: 제이티비씨) is a South Korean nationwide general cable TV network and broadcasting company, in which the largest shareholder is JoongAng Ilbo/JoongAng Media Network with 25% of shares. It was launched on December 1st 2011.

JTBC is one of four new South Korean nationwide general cable TV networks alongside Dong-A Ilbo's Channel A, Chosun Ilbo's TV Chosun and Maeil Kyungje's MBN in 2011. The four new networks supplement existing conventional free-to-air TV networks like KBS, MBC, SBS and other smaller channels launched following deregulation in 1990.

The JoongAng Ilbo, which used to be a part of the Samsung Group, had owned a TV station before. In 1964 it founded the Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation (TBC) and ran the network for 16 years. In 1980 however TBC was forcibly merged with the state-run KBS by the military regime of Chun Doo-hwan. Market watchers saw the return of JoongAng Ilbo to television in JTBC as the reincarnation of TBC in 2011.

Thursday, 21 August 2014

Take Fivers: Malay-Korean Wordplay, Part II


'Goyang' has three meanings:
  • High Sunshine in Sino-Korean - taken from Goyang City, Gyeonggi Province
  • Cat in Archaic Korean
  • 'Shake' in Malay and Indonesian Languages



Take Fivers: Malay-Korean Wordplay, Part I


Madu (마두/馬頭) in Sino-Korean means 'Horse Head' while in Malay and Indonesian Languages, it means 'honey'.


Thanks for 50K Pageviews!


Chiharu with Korean Anarchist General Kim Jwa-jin, celebrated 50,000 Pageviews of Moe Girls' Korean Story Blog.

Wednesday, 20 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XXI: Royal Tomb of King Heon-an, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang Province - Sillan Agro-lover King


King Heon-an of Silla (Hangul/Hanja: 헌안왕/憲安王; died 861) (Reigned: 857–861), whose born as Kim Eui-jeong (김의정/金誼靖) was the 47th king of the Silla kingdom of Korea. He was the younger half-brother of King Sinmu a.k.a Kim Woo-jing. What little we know of his reign comes from the Samguk Sagi.

Following a famine in the year 859, he sent relief to the peasants and supported agriculture through the construction of irrigation works. Being without any heir, King Heon-an chose his relative Kim Eung-ryeom as his heir. After his demise, Kim Eung-ryeom took the throne, becoming King Gyeongmun. His tomb in Seoak-dong 92-2 beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang was known as the Gongjakji (공작지/孔雀趾).

Applied with the simplest style, this is a circle ground mound of 43m height and 15.3m width. The bottom circumference was surrounded by circle stone and only several of the stone remain. Its inside is assumed to be constructed as a stone chamber tomb. The Royal Tomb of King Heon-an is situated near to the Royal Tomb of King Taejong-Muyeol the Great and Seoak-dong Tumuli Site in the same precinct.

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XX: Royal Tomb of King Beopheung, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - Buddhism as the Official Religion of Silla Kingdom


King Beopheung (Hangul/Hanja: 법흥왕/法興王; Reigned: 514–540 CE), whose born as Kim Won-jong (김원종/金原宗) was the 23rd monarch of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was preceded by King Jijeung-Maripgan a.k.a Kim Jidaero (Reigned: 500–514) and succeeded by King Jinheung a.k.a Kim Sammaekjong.

By the time of his reign, Buddhism had become fairly common in Silla, as it had been introduced much earlier by Goguryeo monks during King Nulji-Maripgan's reign. One of King Beopheung's ministers, a man named Ichadon, was a Buddhist convert who had even shaved his head and took the tonsure. He constantly implored the king to adopt Buddhism as the state religion, and in fact King Beopheung himself had become fond of Buddha's teachings. 

However, the other ministers of Silla were greatly opposed to this, and expressed such defiance to the king. Beopheung, having been persuaded by his ministers, was at a crossroads, and encountered great reluctance to change. At this time, Ichadon suggested his own martyrdom and pleaded with the king to execute him in public for the cause of Buddhism. This the king refused to do, and so Ichadon deliberately insulted the ministers of the kingdom, thus provoking the anger of the king. 

In the end, Ichadon was executed in public, but before his head was cut off, he stated that the blood spilled from his body would not be red but milky white. According to the Samguk Yusa, his predictions proved correct, and Ichadon's milky blood horrified the ministers of the kingdom. As a result of Ichadon's matyrdom, King Beopheung finally chose Buddhism as the state religion. However, true Buddhist freedom in Silla would not begin until the reign of King Jinheung. King Beopheung died in 540 CE and buried at Hyohyeon-dong 63-beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - near to Gyeongju University.

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XIX: Royal Tomb of King Taejong-Muyeol the Great, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - Final Ruler of Pre-Unification Silla Kingdom


King Taejong-Muyeol the Great of Silla (Born: 604 – Died: June 661), whose born as Kim Chun-chu (김춘추/金春秋), was the 29th monarch of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla and Final Ruler of Pre-Sillan Unification, ruled from 654 to 661. As a member of the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim, he is credited for leading the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was a friend of Kim Yu-shin - great-grandson of ex-King Guhyeong-Guhae of Geumgwan Gaya (Royal House of Gimhae Kim), who eventually became his brother-in-law after he married the latter's sister.

King Taejong-Muyeol was born with the "sacred blood" rank of seonggol. His father, Kim Yong-su (김용수/金龍樹), was a son of Silla's 25th ruler, King Jinji. When King Jinji was overthrown, all royalty from his line, including Kim Yong-su, were deemed unfit to rule over the kingdom. However, as he Yongsu was one of the few remaining seonggols, and married a seonggol princess (King Jinpyeong's daughter Princess Cheonmyeong), their child, Kim Chun-chu, became seonggol and thus had a claim to the throne. Kim Yong-su was a powerful figure in the government. 

However, he lost all of his power to Kim Baek-ban, the brother of the king. In order to survive, he had accepted to become a jingol, the rank that was right below seonggol. Therefore, he lost his chance of becoming the king, and so did his child, Kim Chun-chu. Following the death of his aunt, Queen Seondeok, Chunchu was passed over in favor of Queen Jindeok of Silla, the last verifiable seonggol. With her death, all the seonggols were dead, so somebody with the royal blood in the jinggol rank had to succeed the throne. 

Kim Alcheon (a.k.a. So Alcheon), who was then Sangdaedeung (highest post of government) of Silla was the original favorite to succeed the throne. His father was a seonggol, who married a jingol wife so that his son would not be a seonggol and suffer from the fight for the throne. However, Kim Yu-shin supported Kim Chun-chu, and Alcheon eventually refused the throne and supported Chun-chu's claim. As a result, Kim Chunchu succeeded the throne as King Taejong-Muyeol the Great.

He was well acquainted with the Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, for he and the Emperor were friends before Gaozong became an Emperor. King Muyeol was a great support to the Emperor, and the Emperor returned the support to King Muyeol. He constantly pleaded with the Tang for reinforcements to destroy Baekje, to which the Tang finally acquiesced in 660, sending 130,000 troops under General Su Dingfang. Meanwhile, Kim Yushin set out from Silla with 50,000 soldiers and fought the bloody Battle of Hwangsanbeol leaving Baekje devastated and unprotected. King Uija of Baekje finally surrendered, leaving only Goguryeo to face Silla as an adversary on the Korean peninsula.

In June 661, King Taejong-Muyeol the Great died, leaving his son Kim Beop-min to assume the throne as King Munmu the Great. King Munmu the Great played his pivotal role in Sillan Unification after defeating Goguryeo which led by King Bojang in 668 CE. King Taejong-Muyeol was buried at Seoak-dong 842-beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - near to Seoak-dong Tumuli Site and Royal Tomb of King Heon-an, 47th Monarch of Silla Kingdom.

Tuesday, 19 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XVIII: Royal Tomb of King Hyogong, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - when the ILLEGITIMATE SON of the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim descended to the Sillan Throne, everything will be DOOMED.


King Hyogong of Silla (Hangul/Hanja: 효공왕/孝恭王; Born: 883 - Died: 912; Reigned: 897–912), whose born as Kim Yo (김요/金嶢) was the 52nd ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla. He was the illegitimate son of King Heongang by Queen Dowager Uimyeong (의명왕태후/義明王太后). He married the daughter of Ichan Ugyeom. 

His reign saw the expansion of Later Three Kingdoms powers, HuGoguryeo-Taebong which led by Gung Ye and HuBaekje which led by Gyeon Hwon across what had once been the western marches of Unified Silla. In 905, Silla lost its holdings to the northeast of Jungnyeong Pass (죽령) in the present-day Yeongju City and Danyang County. In 907, Gyeon Hwon's HuBaekje forces seized ten castles to the south of Ilseon. 

Faced with these defeats, the king turned to drink and neglected state affairs. Upon his death in 912, he was buried to the north of Sajasa temple with its specific location at Baeban-dong san 14-beonji, Gyeongju City, Northern Gyeongsang.

Take Fivers (NSFW Edition!): Imagine if Takao is being f-ed by someone, she called WHO?

Not that Kantai Collection... again.... This time - happened when the certain admiral f-ed with Takao inside Imperial Japanese Naval Base.



First time in Take Fivers NSFW Edition, Sandra Oh descends into this unsafe post.

Monday, 18 August 2014

Take Fivers (NSFW Edition!): Imagine if Iori Minase is being f-ed by someone, she called WHO?

This is happened when the certain producer f-ed with Iori in their office.




Prepare for double dose of Ahn and Hahn!

Saturday, 16 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XVII: Royal Tomb of King Michu-Isageum, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - First Sillan King who is originated from the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim


King Michu-Isageum of Silla (Hanja: 味鄒泥師今) was the thirteenth ruler of the Korean state of Silla (Died: 284; Reigned: 262-284). He was the first king of the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim to sit on the Silla throne; this clan would hold the throne for most of Silla's later history, succeeded from King Cheomhae-Isageum of the Royal House of Wolseong Seok. 

He was the son of Gudo, a leading Silla general, and the sixth-generation descendant of the clan founder Kim Alji. He married Lady Gwangmyeong (석씨 광명부인/昔氏光明夫人) of the Royal House of Wolseong Seok.

During Michu's reign, the Samguk Sagi reports numerous attacks from Baekje, and does not mention any contact with the other neighboring states. Michu's tomb is preserved in Hwangnam-dong 89-2 beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang. Various legends pertain to this burial mound, which is known as the Jukjangneung (죽장릉/竹長陵), or "Bamboo chief tomb."

Although records of his era are not abundant, he seemed to have large interests on agriculture. In 264, he visited the peasant people to encourage them during a severe famine. In 268, subjects were dispatched by Michu to hear concerns of people. Additionally, he was quite compassionate in that he turned down the requirement of rebuilding palaces for the reason that the people shouldn't labor too much.

Thursday, 14 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XVI: Royal Tomb of King Jima-Isageum, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang


King Jima of Silla (died 134, Reigned: 112–134) was the sixth ruler of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He is commonly called Jima-Isageum (Hanja: 祗摩泥師今) or Jimi-Isageum (지미이사금/祇味泥師今), where the word 'isageum' being the royal title in early Silla. As a descendant of Silla's founder - King Hyeokgeose-Geoseogan, his surname was Park. King Jima-Isageum was the eldest son of the previous king, King Pasa-Isageum and Lady Saseong. He married Lady Aerye of the Kim clan.

Relations with Baekje, another of the Three Kingdoms, were peaceful during his reign, with the continuation of a truce established by Jima's predecessor King Pasa-Isageum. When the Malgal attacked from the north in 125, King Jima-Isageum requested aid from Baekje, and Giru sent an army to successfully repel the invaders. Relations with neighboring Gaya confederacy were also peaceful, after Jima's unsuccessful invasion attempts across the Nakdong River in 115 and 116. In 123, he established relations with the Japanese kingdom of Wa.

King Jima-Isageum died without a male heir to the throne and buried at Baedong san 30-beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang; near to the Poseokjeong Pavilion. After his demise, he is succeeded by King Ilseong-Isageum (not to be confused with Kim Il-sung, Eternal President of DPRK) of the Royal House of Gyeongju Park, a distant relative which descended from King Yuri-Isageum, the third King of Silla.

The Royal Tomb of King Jima-Isageum is a relatively big-sized circle in shape which is located at the slope of Mount Namsan, especially at the high place of deep angle of inclination but has no its own peculiar creativity. The location, size and shape of this inform people of the fact that this was not piled up in the early of the Silla Dynasty. At the present time, a small stoned structure like a stone tablet was placed lately in front of the tomb.

Tuesday, 12 August 2014

Korea's NSFW, Part VIII: Don't tell Thomas Ahn Jung-geun that we just talked about COMFORT WOMEN (First Part/전편)

The Okhoru Pavilion inside Gyeongbok Palace is under siege by the Japanese once again after the assassination of Empress Myeongseong of Yeoheung Min Clan. Several months before the assassination of Ito Hirobumi by Thomas Ahn Jung-geun in Harbin, China, Ibuki Hinata leaped the time from the present-day 2014 to the verge of Korean Empire Annexation timeline and became Ito's sexual pleasure victim. Ibuki has expressed loyalty to the Korean Nation and became Thomas Ahn's protege. That time, Thomas Ahn felt very angry on Ito's savaged attitude against Ibuki.

In this eighth installment of Korea's Not Safe for Work, we will talk about one of scars of World War II which is known as Comfort Women. This post will divide into two parts: Introduction of Comfort Women and The Former Comfort Women's Survival in 21st Century.

Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. The name "comfort women" is a translation of a Japanese term ianfu (慰安婦) or a Korean term wianbu (Hangul: 위안부).

Estimates vary as to how many women were involved, with numbers ranging from as low as 20,000 to as high as 200,000, or even as many as 360,000 to 410,000 but the exact numbers are still being researched and debated. Many of the women were from occupied countries, including Korea, China, and the Philippines, although women from Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan (then a Japanese dependency), Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies), East Timor (then Portuguese Timor), and other Japanese-occupied territories were used for military "comfort stations". Stations were located in Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, then Malaya (known as Malaysia from 1963 onwards), Thailand, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, and French Indochina. A smaller number of women of European origin from the Netherlands and Australia were also involved.

According to testimony, young women from countries in Imperial Japanese custody were abducted from their homes. In many cases, women were also lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants. Once recruited, the women were incarcerated in comfort stations in foreign lands.

Today's Japanese government's official view about "comfort women" (Kono Statement) is as follows: "……Comfort stations were operated in extensive areas for long periods, it is apparent that there existed a great number of comfort women. Comfort stations were operated in response to the request of the military authorities of the day. The then Japanese military was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women. The recruitment of the comfort women was conducted mainly by private recruiters who acted in response to the request of the military. The Government study has revealed that in many cases they were recruited against their own will, through coaxing, coercion, etc., and that, at times, administrative/military personnel directly took part in the recruitment. They lived in misery at comfort stations under a coercive atmosphere."

Military correspondence of the Japanese Imperial Army shows that the aim of facilitating comfort stations was the prevention of rape crimes committed by Japanese army personnel and thus preventing the rise of hostility among people in occupied areas.

Given the well-organized and open nature of prostitution in Japan, it was seen as logical that there should be organized prostitution to serve the Japanese Armed Forces. The Japanese Army established the comfort stations to prevent venereal diseases and rape by Japanese soldiers, to provide comfort to soldiers and head off espionage. The comfort stations were not actual solutions to the first two problems, however. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, they aggravated the problems. Yoshimi has asserted, "The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and revolt. That is why it provided women."

The first comfort station was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932. Earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service. However, as Japan continued military expansion, the military found itself short of Japanese volunteers, and turned to the local population to coerce women into serving in these stations. Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, and did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery.

In the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping. Middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan, Manchukuo, and China. These sources soon dried up, especially from Japan. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire. The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, especially from Korea and occupied China. Many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels. The Japanese forced Hui Muslim girls in China to serve as sex slaves by setting up the "Huimin Girl's school" and enrolling Hui girls into the school for this purpose.

The situation became worse as the war progressed. Under the strain of the war effort, the military became unable to provide enough supplies to Japanese units; in response, the units made up the difference by demanding or looting supplies from the locals. Along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare, the military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels. When the locals, especially Chinese, were considered hostile, Japanese soldiers carried out the "Three Alls Policy", which included indiscriminately kidnapping and raping local civilians.

The United States Office of War Information report of interviews with 20 comfort women in Burma found that the girls were induced by the offer of plenty of money, an opportunity to pay off family debts, easy work, and the prospect of a new life in a new land, Singapore. On the basis of these false representations many girls enlisted for overseas duty and were rewarded with an advance of a few hundred yen.

On April 17, 2007 Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Hirofumi Hayashi announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokkeitai (Naval military police), forced women whose fathers attacked the Kenpeitai (Army military police), to work in front line brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing to having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokkeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels.

On 12 May 2007 journalist Taichiro Kajimura announced the discovery of 30 Dutch government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced mass prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang.

The South Korean government designated Bae Jeong-ja (배정자/裵貞子) a.k.a Tayama Sadako (田山貞子 - where Sadako is Japanized name for Jeong-ja), foster daughter of Ito Hirobumi who hailed from Gimhae, Southern Gyeongsang Province as a pro-Japanese collaborator (chinilpa) in September 2007 for recruiting comfort women.

In 2014 China produced almost 90 documents from the archives of the Kwantung Army on the issue. According to China, the documents provide ironclad proof that the Japanese military forced Asian women to work in frontline brothels before and during the Second World War.

Lack of official documentation has made estimates of the total number of comfort women difficult, as vast amounts of material pertaining to matters related to war crimes and the war responsibility of the nation's highest leaders were destroyed on the orders of the Japanese government at the end of the war. Historians have arrived at various estimates by looking at surviving documentation which indicate the ratio of the number of soldiers in a particular area to the number of women, as well as looking at replacement rates of the women. Historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, who conducted the first academic study on the topic which brought the issue out into the open, estimated the number to be between 50,000 and 200,000.

Based on these estimates, most international media sources quote about 200,000 young women were recruited or kidnapped by soldiers to serve in Japanese military brothels. The BBC quotes "200,000 to 300,000" and the International Commission of Jurists quotes "estimates of historians of 100,000 to 200,000 women."

According to State University of New York at Buffalo professor Yoshiko Nozaki and other sources, the majority of the women were from Korea and China. Chuo University professor Yoshiaki Yoshimi states there were about 2,000 centers where as many as 200,000 Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Taiwanese, Burmese, Indonesian, Dutch and Australian women were interned. Ikuhiko Hata, a professor of Nihon University, estimated the number of women working in the licensed pleasure quarter was fewer than 20,000 and that they were 40% Japanese, 20% Koreans, 10% Chinese, with others making up the remaining 30%. According to Hata, the total number of government-regulated prostitutes in Japan was only 170,000 during World War II. Others came from the Philippines, Taiwan, Dutch East Indies, and other Japanese-occupied countries and regions. Some Dutch women, captured in Dutch colonies in Asia, were also forced into sexual slavery.

In further analysis of the Imperial Army medical records for venereal disease treatment from 1940, Yoshimi concluded that if the percentages of women treated reflected the general makeup of the total comfort women population, Korean women comprised 51.8 percent, Chinese 36 percent and Japanese 12.2 percent.

A Dutch government study described how the Japanese military itself recruited women by force in the Dutch East Indies. It concluded that among the 200 to 300 European women working in the Japanese military brothels, “some sixty five were most certainly forced into prostitution.” Others, faced with starvation in the refugee camps, agreed to offers of food and payment for work, the nature of which was not completely revealed to them.

To date, only one Japanese woman has published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former comfort woman forced to work for Showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota.

Approximately three quarters of comfort women died, and most survivors were left infertile due to sexual trauma or sexually transmitted diseases. Beatings and physical torture were said to be common.

Ten Dutch women were taken by force from prison camps in Java by officers of the Japanese Imperial Army to become forced sex slaves in February 1944. They were systematically beaten and raped day and night. As a victim of the incident, in 1990, Jan Ruff-O'Herne testified to a U.S. House of Representatives committee:
"Many stories have been told about the horrors, brutalities, suffering and starvation of Dutch women in Japanese prison camps. But one story was never told, the most shameful story of the worst human rights abuse committed by the Japanese during World War II: The story of the “Comfort Women”, the jugun ianfu, and how these women were forcibly seized against their will, to provide sexual services for the Japanese Imperial Army. In the “comfort station” I was systematically beaten and raped day and night. Even the Japanese doctor raped me each time he visited the brothel to examine us for venereal disease."
In their first morning at the brothel, photographs of Ruff-O'Herne and the others were taken and placed on the veranda which was used as a reception area for the Japanese personnel who would choose from these photographs. Over the following four months the girls were raped and beaten day and night, with those who became pregnant forced to have abortions. After four harrowing months, the girls were moved to a camp at Bogor, in West Java, where they were reunited with their families. This camp was exclusively for women who had been put into military brothels, and the Japanese warned the inmates that if anyone told what had happened to them, they and their family members would be killed. Several months later the O'Hernes were transferred to a camp at Batavia, which was liberated on 15 August 1945.

The Japanese officers involved received some punishment by Japanese authorities at the end of the war. After the end of the war, 11 Japanese officers were found guilty with one soldier being sentenced to death by the Batavia War Criminal Court. The court decision found that the charge violated was the Army's order to hire only voluntary women. Victims from East Timor testified they were forced into slavery even when they were not old enough to have started menstruating. The court testimonies state that these prepubescent girls were repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers while those who refused to comply were executed.

Hank Nelson, emeritus professor at the Australian National University's Asia Pacific Research Division, has written about the brothels run by the Japanese military in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea during WWII. He quotes from the diary of Gordon Thomas, a POW in Rabaul. Thomas writes that the women working at the brothels “most likely served 25 to 35 men a day” and that they were “victims of the yellow slave trade.”

Nelson also quotes from Kentaro Igusa, a Japanese naval surgeon who was stationed in Rabaul. Igusa wrote in his memoirs that the women continued to work through infection and severe discomfort, though they “cried and begged for help.”

During World War II, the Shōwa regime implemented in Korea a prostitution system similar to the one established in other parts of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Korean agents, Korean Kempeitai (military police) and military auxiliaries were involved in the procurement and organization of comfort women, and made use of their services. Park Chong-song found that "Koreans under Japanese rule became fully acculturated as main actors in the licensed prostitution system that was transplanted in their country by the colonial state".

Even after World War II, the legacies of the comfort women system remained deeply entrenched in Korean society. During the Korean War, the South Korean military institutionalized a "special comfort unit" similar to the one used by the Japanese military during World War II. Until recently, very little was known about this apart from testimonies of retired generals and soldiers who had fought in the war. In February 2002, Korean sociologist Kim Kwi-ok (김귀옥) wrote the first scholarly work on Korea's comfort women through the use of official records.

The post-colonial South Korean "comfort" system was organized around three operations. First, there were "special comfort units" called Teuksu Wiandae (특수위안대), which operated from seven different stations. Second, there were mobile units of comfort women that visited barracks. Third, there were prostitutes who worked in private brothels that were hired by the military. Although it is still not clear how recruitment of these comfort women were organized in the South, South Korean agents were known to have kidnapped some of the women from North Korea.

According to anthropologist Sarah Soh Chunghee (소정희) of San Francisco State University, the South Korean military's use of comfort women has produced "virtually no societal response," despite the country's women's movement's support for Korean comfort women within the Japanese military. Both Kim and Soh argue that this system is a legacy of Japanese colonialism, as many of South Korea's military leadership were trained within the Japanese military. Both the Japanese and South Korean militaries referred to these comfort women as "military supplies" in official documents and personal memoirs. The South Korean military also used to same arguments as the Japanese military to justify the use of comfort women, viewing them as a "necessary social evil" that would raise soldiers' morale and prevent rape.

Present-day Japanese Embassy in 22 Yulgok Avenue 2nd Street/Yulgok-ro 2-gil, Junghak-dong 18-11 beonji, Seoul Jongno-gu with the statue of Comfort Women - located opposite to the embassy. The second part of 'Don't tell Thomas Ahn Jung-geun that we just talked about comfort women' will be continued on the particular time.

Take Fivers (NSFW Edition!): Imagine if Atago is being f-ed by someone, she called WHO?

The Kanmusus strike again! This time is Atago's turn - happened when Admiral f-ed with big-boobed Blondie Atago in Japanese Imperial Base.



It looks like that Joe Hahn of Linkin Park faced some problem here...

Sunday, 3 August 2014

Koihime Musou Girls and Famous Koreans, Part XXIX: Wen Chou and Timotheus Moon Jae-in


Moon Jae-in (Hangul/Hanja: 문재인/文在寅; born January 24, 1953) is a South Korean lawyer, an assemblyman of Busan Sasang-gu in the 19th Session of Gukhoe and the former chief of staff to late President Roh Moo-hyun. On September 16, 2012, Moon received the nomination for the Democratic United Party's candidate for the 2012 presidential election after winning a majority in the party primaries. He is a member of Nampyeong Moon Clan (남평 문씨/南平文氏), originated from Nampyeong-eup, Naju City, Southern Jeolla Province.

Born in Myeongjin-ri, Geoje-myeon, Geoje City, Southern Gyeongsang Province, South Korea, Moon Jae-in was the first son. His father, Moon Yong-hyung was a refugee from North Korea who fled his native city of Hamhung, Southern Hamgyeong Province, DPRK during the Hamhung Retreat. His father settled in Geoje as a laborer for the Geoje POW Camp.

Moon attended Kyungnam High School, which is considered among the most prestigious schools outside of Seoul. He enrolled in Kyunghee University where he majored in law. He was arrested and expelled from the university when he organized a student protest against the Yushin Constitution. 

Later, he was forcibly conscripted to the military and recruited to the Special Forces, where he participated in a military mission during the Axe murder incident. After his discharge, he passed the Bar Exam and was admitted to the Judicial Research and Training Institute. He graduated second in his graduating class and, despite his superb academic record, was not admitted to become a judge due to his organization of protests as a student and chose to become a lawyer instead.

When he became a lawyer, he partnered and worked with Roh Moo-hyun. They remained friends up until Roh's death in 2009. Along with Roh, he took cases involving human rights and civil rights issues. He was a member of Minbyun and the was the Chairman of Human Rights at Busan Bar. When prosecutors began investigating Roh's corruption charges, Moon was the legal counsel to Roh. After Roh committed suicide, Moon was in charge of the funeral and handling his private affairs. His exposure to the public as a poised and trustworthy aide impressed the public and many liberals in Korea found Moon to be an attractive candidate against the conservative Park Geun-hye.

Despite his earlier indifference to politics, he began to get involved in the politics. He published a memoir called Moon Jae-in: The Destiny which became a bestseller. His popularity has been rising steady against the likely opponent in the presidential race, Park Geun-hye. For instance, in a February 2012 poll, Moon managed to gain parity with Park in popularity. Moon managed to capitalize on the conservatives' decline in popularity amid a series of corruption scandals: as one pundit said, "Moon had managed to portray himself as a moderate and rational leader who has the backing of the younger generation". In early 2012, Moon entered a bid for a seat at the National Assembly and has been campaigning in western Busan. He ran for the 2012 presidential election and was defeated by Park Geun-hye, the incumbent ruling party’s candidate and daughter of the late dictator Park Chung-hee.

He is a Roman Catholic. His baptismal name is Timotheus. Moon has reported that he has done activities with the YMCA and that his life and political activities have deep relationships with Christianity. He has said, if he becomes president, he will aim for clean and humble government, which are Christian values. And he promised he will support the WEA (World Evangelical Alliance) conference which will be held from 27 to 31 October 2012 in Korea.

Koihime Musou Girls and Famous Koreans, Part XXVIII: Zhang Liao and Jang Woo-young


Jang Wooyoung (Hangul/Hanja: 장우영/張祐榮, generally known as Wooyoung, born on April 30, 1989 in Busan Metropole, Korea) is a South Korean idol and K-pop singer. He is one of six members of 2PM, a boy band managed by JYP Entertainment. He is a member of Indong Jang Clan (인동 장씨/仁同張氏), a clan which is originated from the administrative precinct of Indong-dong, Gumi City, Northern Gyeongsang Province.

On May 22, 2012, it was revealed that Wooyoung will release solo album in early July. Although Jun. K had experienced releasing solo tracks through their Asia tour, Wooyoung will be the first member to formally release a solo album and promote it. Wooyoung's album will include one self-composed song each by fellow member Junho and Jun. K and will contain five to six songs, making it a mini-album. On June 28, he performed his upcoming title track called, "Sexy Lady" in Mnet 20's Choice award. On the same day, Wooyoung's first solo album tracklist was revealed. In July 2012 Wooyoung, along with JYP, Taecyeon, miss A's Suzy promoted the clothing company Reebok with the collaboration for the “Classic Campaign, and with their song named "Classic". On 9 June 2014, Wooyoung released two duets: "Two Hands Clasped" with Park Se-young, and "Fireflies' Glow" with lel. 

Wooyoung, along with fellow 2PM member Taecyeon, hosted SBS's music show Inkigayo from July 2009 to July 2010. In February 2010, he was named a sub-MC for Kim Seung Woo's talk show KBS Win Win alongside Girls' Generation's Taeyeon, Kim Shin Young, and Choi Hwa Jung. He received praise as a genius in the making for his natural MC style and quick wit. He regularly expressed curiosity on the show, regularly beginning his sentences with, "I'm curious about something..." This tendency earning the nickname "Curious Wooyoung." He left the show in August 2010, along with Taeyeon, to focus on 2PM's first concert.

Wooyoung debuted as an actor in the 2011 KBS drama series Dream High. There, he played the role of Jason, a Korean-American. His performance in the drama made him famous for the English line, "Is it my turn already?" Also, he had help from Ok Taecyeon and Nichkhun Buck Horvejkul with his English line due to their both experience with the language. After concluding his drama debut in Dream High, Wooyoung expressed a desire to continue acting while maintaining a musical career. A representative for JYP Entertainment noted the future opportunities, saying "We're planning to continue Wooyoung's acting career when he receives another great project. He was worried before Dream High began filming, and often wondered whether he'd be able to act, but we believe that he's gained a lot of confidence since then. He's gotten very interested in the acting field, so we plan to continue his acting career, along with fellow member Taecyeon".

In September 2011, Wooyoung and Miss A's Suzy made a cameo appearances in the new KBS Drama Special Human Casino. The two idols played the role of a couple caught up in gambling scandals. The two are good friends with the PD of Human Casino, who also produced the KBS 2TV series High Kick. Their scenes weren't a part of the actual drama, but were rather featured towards the end with the rolling credits. Kim PD stated, "I told these two that I was starting a new project and they told me they wanted to visit, so I thought of giving them a small cameo role."

Wooyoung trained Kim Gyuri for her performance on MBC's Dancing With the Stars in July 2011. Netizens praised his talents as a dancer for having the chance to teach others about it. For 2PM's tours in 2011 (Hands Up Asia Tour and Republic of 2PM), Junho and Wooyoung performed a duet that Junho wrote, while Wooyoung choreographed and designed their outfits.

Taecyeon and Wooyoung modeled for the fall collection for the clothing brand, Evisu. In this photo shoot, they put aside their fun image and showed a more chic side. For Evisu's fall collection, Taecyeon and Wooyoung modeled denim jackets, jeans, and shirts, along with vintage-style items.

On June 26, JYP revealed news of a collaboration between JYP Entertainment and Swizz Beatz for Reebok. He also revealed the endorsement models from his agency: 2PM's Wooyoung, Nichkhun, and miss A's Suzy.

Saturday, 2 August 2014

Silla Superiority Complex, Part XV: Royal Tomb of King Naemul-Maripgan, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang - A Sensible Bit of Old Korean Language


King Naemul-Maripgan of Silla (Hanja: 奈勿麻立干; died 402; Reigned: 356–402) was the 17th ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla. He was the nephew of King Michu-Isageum and the second King from the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim. He married Michu's daughter, Lady Boban (보반부인/保反夫人). He is given the regnal title of Naemul-Isageum (내물이사금/奈勿尼師今), the same one borne by earlier rulers since the reign of King Yuri-Isageum from the Royal House of Gyeongju Park, in the Samguk Sagi; he is given the title Maripgan, borne by later rulers, in the Samguk Yusa. King Naemul was known as the first king to initiate the king title of ‘Maripgan’ and was known for spreading cultural advancements from China to the Korean people. 

He is also the first king to appear by name in Chinese records. It appears that there was a great influx of Chinese culture into Silla in his period, and that the widespread use of Chinese characters began in his time. Naemul sent a tribute mission to the king of Early Jin in 381.

Naemul's later reign was troubled by recurrent invasions by Wa Japan and the northern Malgal tribes. This began with a massive Japanese incursion in 364, which was repulsed with great loss of life. When the allied forces of Baekje and Japan attacked, he asked King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo for help and led the people to victory, contributing to the increased strength of the Silla Kingdom. After his demise, the throne of Silla Kingdom was succeeded by King Silseong-Maripgan of the Royal House of Gyeongju Kim.

The Royal Tomb of King Naemul-Maripgan in Gyodong 14-beonji, Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang Province is a large mound (2.2m in diameter and 5.3m in height) that sits on the northern hill of Gyeongju Hyanggyo. The edge of a natural stone is exposed around the bottom of the mound, pointing to the fact that the inner chamber tomb was made of stone. In the historical document Samguk Sagi (History of the Three Kingdoms), no records are found about the tomb, but the Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms) describes the king’s tomb as being located in the southwest of Cheomseongdae, which is consistent with the tomb’s location.


Old Korean Language (Languages of Korean Three Kingdoms)
Old Korean is the historical variety of the Korean language or Koreanic languages dating from the beginning of Three Kingdoms of Korea to the latter part of the Unified Silla, roughly during the 4th to 10th centuries CE. It is distinct from Proto-Korean (원시 한국어), the ancestral language reconstructed from comparison of Korean dialects. Old Korean may have been one of the Altaic languages, although this has not been clearly established.

The extent of Old Korean is unclear. It is generally accepted as including Sillan, which is thought to be the direct ancestor of Middle and Modern Korean, and may also have included Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Baekje. If so, Old Korean was a language family, not a single language.

Only some literary records of Unified Silla, changed into Goryeo text, are extant and some texts (written in their native Writing system) of the Three Kingdoms period are mostly available in form of inscriptions at present. Thus, the languages of the Three Kingdoms period are generally examined through official government names and local district names. The point at which Old Korean became Middle Korean is assessed variously by different scholars. The line is sometimes drawn in the late Goryeo dynasty, and sometimes around the 15th century in the early Joseon Dynasty. But it is usually thought that Middle Korean started at the establishment of Goryeo, and the standard language of Old Korean was changed from the Silla dialect to the Goryeo dialect.

The first texts in Old Korean date from the Three Kingdoms period. They are written using Chinese characters (Hanja) to represent the sound and grammar of the native language. Various systems were used, beginning with ad hoc approaches and gradually becoming codified in the scribal idu system and the hyangchal system used for poetry, and in a later phase (leading up to Middle Korean) gugyeol. Additional information about the language is drawn from various proper nouns recorded in Korean and Chinese records, and from etymological studies of the Korean pronunciations of Chinese characters, which are believed to have been first adapted into Korean in the late Three Kingdoms period.