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Monday, 9 June 2014

Great, Glamorous and Glorious Goguryeo (4G), Part I: Introduction to Goguryeo (Arrghh... that's too long!)

Goguryeo Pavilion at Mount Acha, Guri, Gyeonggi Province. Mount Acha is located between Seoul Gwangjin-gu and Guri, Gyeonggi Province.
King Sansang have forged relations with Chinese Wei Dynasty but King Dongcheon broke the diplomatic ties with Wei by initiating Goguryeo-Wei Wars.
Goguryeo (Hangul/Traditional and Simplified Hanja/Chinese Pinyin: 고구려/高句麗/高句丽/Gāo Gōu Lí (Founded: 37 BCE by King Chumo-Dongmyeong a.k.a Jumong – Downfall: 668 CE, during King Bojang's Reign) was one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea, located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of inner and outer Manchuria. Goguryeo was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula and was also associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China and Japan. The kingdom is one of the longest lasting in world history. This Kingdom had three capitals: Jolbon (졸본/卒本) in present-day Benxi, Liaoning Province, China; Gungnae (국내/國內) in present-day Ji'an, Jilin Province, China and Pyongyang, DPRK.

The Samguk Sagi, a 12th-century Goryeo text, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BC by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, although there is archaeological and textual evidence from Chinese geographic monographs that suggests that Goguryeo may have been in existence since the 2nd century BC around the fall of Gojoseon, an earlier kingdom which also occupied southern Manchuria and northern Korea.

Goguryeo was a major dynasty in Northeast Asia, until it was defeated by a Silla-Tang alliance in 668 AD. After its fall, its territory was divided among Unified Silla, Balhae, and the Tang dynasty. The shortened name for Goguryeo was adopted by the Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918-1392), whose territory was in the southern portion of Goguryeo, and would be the foundation of the English word "Korea."

According to the 12th century Samguk Sagi and the 13th century Samguk Yusa, a prince from the kingdom of Buyeo, named Jumong, fled after a power struggle with other princes of the Buyeo court and founded the Goguryeo state in 37 BC in a region called Jolbon Buyeo, usually thought to be located in the middle Yalu and T'ung-chia river basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. Some scholars believe that Goguryeo may have been founded in the 2nd century BC. In the geographic monographs of the Han Shu, the word Goguryeo or "高句麗" was first mentioned in 113 BC as a region under the jurisdiction of the Xuantu commandery. In the Old Book of Tang (945 AD), it is recorded that Emperor Taizong of Tang refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old.

In 75 BC, a group of Yemaek tribes (a proto-Goguryeo type people), which may have originated from Goguryeo, made an incursion into China's Xuantu commandery west from the Amnok River valley. However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old and New Histories of Tang, the Samguk Sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BC or "middle" 1st century BC foundation date for Goguryeo.

Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo. The first mention of Goguryeo as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes would be a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo revolt in 12 AD (31st Reigning Year of King Yuri-myeong), during which they broke away from Xuantu influence. Whether or not this revolt was an attempt to restore a previously-held sovereignty (which would imply a somewhat older founding date for Goguryeo) or an establishment of a new, independent entity is unclear.

At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of Buyeo and Yemaek people, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms. The San Guo Zhi, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", implied that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke a similar language.

The earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th century AD. Stele of Great King Gwanggaeto. Jumong is often said to be the Korean transcription of the hanja as 朱蒙 (Jumong, 주몽), 鄒牟 (Chumo, 추모), or 仲牟 (Jungmo, 중모).

The Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo and daughter of the river deity Habaek. The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa paints additional detail and names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Hae Mosu who is described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." The river god chased Yuhwa away to Ubal river (우발수, 優渤水) due to pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of King Geumwa of Dongbuyeo.

Jumong was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Eventually, Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, and Jumong was forced to leave Dongbuyeo. The Stele and later Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from Northern Buyeo and the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong eventually made it to the Jolbon Buyeo confederacy, where he married So Seo-no, daughter of its ruler. He subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country.

A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk Sagi, says that So Seo-no was the daughter of Yeon Ta-bal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. However, the same source officially states that the king of Jolbon Buyeo gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Dongbuyeo, in marriage. She gave her husband, Jumong, financial support in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms, one of which was Baekje.

Jumong's given surname was "Hae" (解), the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samguk Yusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" (高), in conscious reflection of his divine parentage. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu (비류국, 沸流國) in 36 BC, Haeng-in (행인국, 荇人國) in 33 BC, and North Okjeo in 28 BC. The Hoengseong Go Clan (횡성 고씨/橫城 髙氏), originated from Hoengseong County, Gangwon Province is related to its progenitor, King Chumo-Dongmyeong

Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and rapidly expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of King Taejodae-Gukjo of Goguryeo in 53 AD, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology; Goguryeo controlled territory in what is currently central and southern Manchuria and northern Korea which are both very mountainous and lacking in arable land. Upon centralizing, Goguryeo might have been unable to harness enough resources from the region to feed its population and thus, following historical pastoralist tendencies, would have sought to raid and exploit neighboring societies for their land and resources. Aggressive military activities may have also aided expansion, allowing Goguryeo to exact tribute from their tribal neighbors and dominate them politically and economically.

Taejodae conquered the Okjeo tribes of what is now northeastern Korea as well as the Eastern Ye and other tribes in Southeastern Manchuria and Northern Korea. From the increase of resources and manpower that these subjugated tribes gave him, Taejodae led Goguryeo in attacking Han China's commanderies of Lelang, Xuantu, and Liaodong in the Korean and Liaodong peninsulas, becoming fully independent from the Han commanderies.

Generally, Taejodae allowed the conquered tribes to retain their chieftains, but required them to report to governors who were related to Goguryeo's royal line; tribes under Goguryeo's jurisdiction were expected to provide heavy tribute. Taejodae and his successors channeled these increased resources to continuing Goguryeo's expansion to the north and west. New laws regulated peasants and the aristocracy, as tribal leaders continued to be absorbed into the central aristocracy. Royal succession changed from fraternal to patrilineal, stabilizing the royal court.

The expanding Goguryeo kingdom soon entered into direct military contact with the Liaodong commandery to its west. Pressure from Liadong forced Goguryeo to move their capital in the Hun River valley to the Yalu River valley near Mt. Hwando.

In the chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created Wei Dynasty of China and sent tribute in 220 (23rd Reigning Year of King Sansang). In 238 (12th Reigning year of King Dongcheon), Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with the Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery.

When Liaodong was finally conquered by Wei, cooperation between Wei and Goguryeo fell apart and Goguryeo attacked the western edges of Liaodong, which incited a Wei counterattack in 244. Thus, Goguryeo initiated the Goguryeo–Wei Wars in 242, trying to cut off Chinese access to its territories in Korea by attempting to take a Chinese fort. However, the Wei state responded by invading and defeated Goguryeo. The capital at Hwando was destroyed Wei forces in 244. It is said that the King Dongcheon, with his army destroyed, fled for a while to the Okjeo tribes in the east.

The Wei armies thought they had destroyed Goguryeo and soon left the area. However, in only 70 years, Goguryeo rebuilt their capital Hwando Mountain Fortress and again began to raid the Liaodong, Lelang and Xuantu commandaries. As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong peninsula, the last Chinese commandery at Lelang was conquered and absorbed by Micheon of Goguryeo in 313, bringing the northern part of the Korean peninsula into the fold. This conquest resulted in the end of Chinese rule over territory in the northern Korean peninsula, which had spanned 400 years. From that point on, until the 7th century, territorial control of the peninsula would be contested primarily by the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

The expansion met temporary setbacks when in winter 342, Xianbei, ruled by the Murong clan, attacked Goguryeo's capital, and entering its capital Hwando and forcing its King GogugWon to flee for a while. The Xianbei used the Goguryeo people for slave labor. Buyeo was also destroyed by the Xianbei in 346, the Korean peninsula also became subject to Xianbei migration. In 371, when King Geunchogo of Baekje sacked one of Goguryeo's largest cities, Pyongyang, and killed King 
GogugWon of Goguryeo in the Battle of Chiyang.

Turning to domestic stability and the unification of various conquered tribes, Sosurim of Goguryeo proclaimed new laws, embraced Buddhism as the state religion in 372, and established a national educational institute called the Taehak (태학, 太學). Due to the defeats that Goguryeo had suffered at the hands of Former Yan and Baekje, Sosurim also instituted military reforms aimed at preventing such defeats in the future.

Gwanggaeto the Great (Reigned: 391–413 CE) was a highly energetic monarch that is remembered for his rapid military expansion of the realm. Gwanggaetto is said to have conquered 64 walled cities and 1,400 villages from campaigns against Khitan and Baekje, destroyed Later Yan and took the entire Liaodong Peninsula in 404. He also annexed much of Buyeo and expanded into the territory of Mohe tribes in north, subjugated northern Baekje, contributed to the dissolution of the Gaya confederacy, annexed Wa (Japan) overseas and coerced Silla into agreeing to become a protectorate through the Goguryeo–Yamato War. In doing so, he brought about a loose unification of the Korean peninsula that lasted about 50 years. By the end of his reign, Goguryeo had achieved undisputed control of southern Manchuria, and the northern and central regions of the Korean Peninsula.

During this period, Goguryeo territory included three fourths of the Korean peninsula, including what is now Seoul, and much of southern Manchuria and the southeastern end of Russian maritime province. Gwanggaeto instituted the reign name of "Yeongnak", thus signifying his belief that he was on an equal footing with the major Chinese dynasties. Gwanggaeto's exploits have been recorded on a huge memorial stele located near present day Jilin in southern Manchuria, that was erected by his son, Jangsu.

King Jangsu ascended to the throne in 413 and moved the capital to Pyongyang in 427, which is evidence of the intensifying rivalries between Goguryeo and the other two peninsular kingdoms of Baekje and Silla to its south. Jangsu, like his father, continued Goguryeo's territorial expansion into Manchuria and reached the eastern Songhua River. Goguryeo expanded its sphere of influence to Didouyu (지두우, 地豆于) located in eastern Mongolia with Rouran during his reign. King Jangsu changed the official name of Goguryeo, to Goryeo (고려/高麗). But it was still often used in combination with Goguryeo.
 
During the reign of Munja-myeong, Goguryeo completely annexed Buyeo, signifying Goguryeo's furthest-ever expansion north, while continuing its strong influence over the kingdoms of Silla and Baekje, and also over Mohe and Khitan tribes.

Goguryeo reached its zenith in the 6th century. After this, however, it began a steady decline. Anjang was assassinated, and succeeded by his brother Anwon, during whose reign aristocratic factionalism increased. A political schism deepened as two factions advocated different princes for succession, until the eight year-old Yang-won was finally crowned. But the power struggle was never resolved definitively, as renegade magistrates with private armies appointed themselves de facto rulers of their areas of control.

Taking advantage of Goguryeo's internal struggle, a nomadic group called the Tuchueh attacked Goguryeo's northern castles in the 550s and conquered some of Goguryeo's northern lands. Weakening Goguryeo even more, as civil war continued among feudal lords over royal succession, Baekje and Silla allied to attack Goguryeo from the south in 551.

In the late 6th and early 7th centuries, Goguryeo was often in conflict with the Sui and Tang Dynasties of China. Its relations with Baekje and Silla were complex and alternated between alliances and enmity. A neighbor in the northwest were the Eastern Göktürk (a khanate in northwestern China and near Mongolia) which was a nominal ally of Goguryeo.

In 551 AD (7th Reigning Year of King YangWon), Baekje and Silla entered into an alliance to attack Goguryeo and conquer the Han River valley, an important strategic area close to the center of the peninsula and a very rich agricultural region. After Baekje exhausted themselves with a series of costly assaults on Goguryeo fortifications, Silla troops, arriving on the pretense of offering assistance, attacked and took possession of the entire Han River valley in 553. Incensed by this betrayal, Baekje's King Seong in the following year launched a retaliatory strike against Silla's western border but was captured and killed.

The war, along the middle of the Korean peninsula, had very important consequences. It effectively made Baekje the weakest player on the Korean peninsula and gave Silla an important resource and population rich area as a base for expansion. Conversely, it denied Goguryeo the use of the area, which weakened the kingdom. It also gave Silla direct access to the Yellow Sea, opening up direct trade and diplomatic access to the Chinese dynasties and accelerating Silla's adoption of Chinese culture. Thus, Silla could rely less on Goguryeo for elements of civilization and could get culture and technology directly from China. This increasing tilt of Silla to China would result in an alliance that would prove disastrous for Goguryeo in the late 7th century.

Goguryeo's expansion conflicted with the Sui Dynasty and increased tensions during the reigning period of King YeongYang. Goguryeo military offensives in the western Liaoxi region provoked the Sui and resulted in the first of the Goguryeo-Sui Wars in 598. In this campaign, as with those that followed in 612, 613, and 614, Sui was unsuccessful in overrunning Goguryeo, but did gain minor concessions and promises of submission that were never fulfilled.

Sui's most disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo was in 612, in which Sui, according to the History of the Sui Dynasty, mobilized 30 Division armies, about 1,133,800 combat troops. Pinned along Goguryeo's line of fortifications on the Liao river, a detachment of nine division armies, about 305,000 troops, bypassed the main defensive lines and headed towards the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang to link up with Sui naval forces, who had reinforcements and supplies.

However, Goguryeo was able to defeat the Sui navy, thus when the Sui's nine division armies finally reached Pyongyang, they didn't have the supplies for a lengthy siege. Sui troops retreated, but General Eulji Mundeok led the Goguryeo troops to victory by luring them into an ambush outside of Pyongyang. At the Battle of Salsu River, Goguryeo soldiers released water from a dam, which split the Sui army and cut off their escape route. Of the original 305,000 soldiers of Sui's nine division armies, it is said that only 2,700 escaped to Sui China.

The 613 and 614 campaigns were aborted after launch—the 613 campaign was terminated when the Sui general Yang Xuangan rebelled against Emperor Yang of Sui, while the 614 campaign was terminated after Goguryeo offered surrender and returned Husi Zheng (斛斯政), a defecting Sui general who had fled to Goguryeo, Emperor Yang later had Husi executed. Emperor Yang planned another attack on Goguryeo in 615, but due to Sui's deteroriating internal state he was never able to launch it. Sui was weakened due to rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule and Yang's failed attempts to conquer Goguryeo. They could not attack further because the provinces in the Sui heartland would not send logistical support.

The wars depleted the national treasury of the Sui and after revolts and political strife, the Sui Dynasty disintegrated in 618. However, the wars also exhausted Goguryeo's strength and its power declined.

In the winter 642, King Yeongnyu was apprehensive about his general Yeon Gaesomun and was plotting with his other officials to kill Yeon. When Yeon received the news, he started a coup and killed the king and the high level officials. He declared King Yeongnyu's nephew, Go Jang, as the King, while taking power himself with the title of Dae Mangniji (대막리지, 大莫離支, Generalissimo). He increased tensions between China's Tang Dynasty and Goguryeo, as Yeon took an increasingly provocative stance against Tang. When Emperor Taizong of Tang received the news, there were suggestions that an attack be launched against Goguryeo, suggestions that Emperor Taizong initially declined.

By summer 645, Goguryeo was attacked by a Tang army that was personally lead by Taizong. Tang forces had captured Yodong (遼東, in modern Liaoyang, Liaoning), and had captured a number of Goguryeo fortresses to clear a path to Pyongyang. Ansi (安市, in modern Anshan, Liaoning) was the last fortress that would clear the Liaoning peninsula of significant defensive works and was promptly put under siege. However, the capable defense put up by Ansi's commanding general (whose name is controversial but traditionally is believed to be Yang Manchun) stymied Tang forces and, in late fall, with winter fast approaching and his supplies running low, Emperor Taizong withdrew. The campaign was unsuccessful for the Tang Chinese, failing to capture fortified Ansi after long time siege. After Tang Taizong's death in 649, Tang armies were again sent to conquer Goguryeo in 661 and 662, but could not overcome the successful defense led by Yeon Gaesomun and was not able to conquer Goguryeo, although the Tang attacks inflicted substantial losses.

Goguryeo's ally in the southwest, Baekje, fell to the Silla-Tang alliance in 660; the victorious allies continued their assault on Goguryeo for the next eight years.

In summer 666 (Satanic Year... I think?), Yeon Gaesomun died and was initially succeeded as Dae Mangniji by his oldest son Yeon Namsaeng. As Yeon Namsaeng subsequently carried out a tour of Goguryeo territory, however, rumors began to spread both that Yeon Namsaeng was going to kill his younger brothers Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan, whom he had left in charge at Pyongyang, and that Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan were planning to rebel against Yeon Namsaeng. When Yeon Namsaeng subsequently sent officials close to him back to Pyongyang to try to spy on the situation, Yeon Namgeon arrested them and declared himself Dae Mangniji, attacking his brother. Yeon Namsaeng sent his son Gwon Saseong (泉獻誠), as Yeon Namsaeng changed his family name from Yeon (淵) to Gwon (泉) observe naming taboo for Emperor Gaozu, to Tang to seek aid. Emperor Gaozong of Tang saw this as the opportunity and he sent an army to attack and destroy Goguryeo.

In 667, Chinese army crossed the Liao River and captured Sinseong (新城, in modern Fushun, Liaoning). The Tang forces thereafter fought off counterattacks by Yeon Namgeon and joined forces with Yeon Namsaeng, although they were initially unable to cross the Yalu River. In spring 668, Li Ji turned his attention to Goguryeo's northern cities, capturing the important city of Buyeo (扶餘, in modern Siping, Jilin). In fall 668, he crossed the Yalu River and put Pyongyang under siege in concert with the Silla army.

Yeon Namsan and King Bojang surrendered, and while Yeon Namgeon continued to resist in the inner city, his general, the Buddhist monk Shin Seong (信誠) turned against him and surrendered the inner city to Tang forces. Yeon Namgeon tried to commit suicide, but was seized and treated. This was the end of Goguryeo, and Tang annexed Goguryeo into its territory, with Xue Rengui being put initially in charge of former Goguryeo territory as protector general.

However, there was much resistance to Tang rule (fanned by Silla, which was displeased that Tang did not give it Goguryeo or Baekje's territory), and in 669, following Emperor Gaozong's order, a part of the Goguryeo people were forced to move to the region between the Yangtze River and the Huai River, as well as the regions south of the Qinling Mountains and west of Chang'an, only leaving old and weak inhabitants in the original land.

Silla thus unified most of the Korean peninsula in 668, but the kingdom's reliance on China's Tang Dynasty had its price. Tang set up the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, governed by Xue Rengui, but faced increasing problems ruling the former inhabitants of Goguryeo, as well as Silla's resistance to Tang's remaining presence on the Korean Peninsula. Silla had to forcibly resist the imposition of Chinese rule over the entire peninsula, which lead to the Silla–Tang Wars, but their own strength did not extend beyond the Taedong River.

After the fall of Goguryeo in 668, many Goguryeo people rebelled against the Tang and Silla by starting Goguryeo revival movements. Among these were Geom Mojam, Dae Jung-sang, and several famous generals. The Tang Dynasty tried but failed to establish several commanderies to rule over the area.

In 677, Tang crowned former king Bojang as the "King of Joseon" and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. However, King Bojang continued to foment rebellions against Tang in an attempt to revive Goguryeo, organizing Goguryeo refugees and allying with the Mohe tribes. He was eventually exiled to Szechuan in 681, and died the following year.

The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was installed by the Tang government to rule and keep control over the former territories of the fallen Goguryeo. It was first put under the control of Tang General Xue Rengui, but was later replaced by King Bojang due the negative responses of the Goguryeo people. Bojang was sent into exile for assisting Goguryeo revival movements, but was succeeded by his descendants. Go Jang's descendants declared independence from the Tang during the time at which An Shi Rebellion and Yi Jeonggi's rebellion in Shandong, China. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was renamed "Lesser Goguryeo" until its eventual absorption into Balhae under the reign of King Seon of Balhae.

Geom Mojam and Anseung rose briefly at Hanseong, but failed, when Anseung surrendered to Silla. Go Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam, and defected to Silla, where he was given a small amount of land to rule over. There, Anseung established the Kingdom of Bodeok, incited a rebellion, which was promptly crushed by King Sinmun. Anseung was then forced to reside in the Silla capital, given a Silla bride and had to adopt the Silla Royal surname of "Kim."

Dae Jung-sang and his son Dae Jo-yeong, both former Goguryeo generals, regained most of Goguryeo's northern land after its downfall in 668, established the kingdom Great Jin, which was renamed to Balhae after the death of Dae Jung-sang. To the south of Balhae, Silla controlled the Korean peninsula south of the Taedong River, and Manchuria (present-day northeastern China) was conquered by Balhae. Balhae considered itself (particularly in diplomatic correspondence with Japan) the successor state to Goguryeo until its downfall in 926CE..

In the early 10th century, Gung-ye, a rebel general, established Taebong, later renamed to HuGoguryeo ("Later Goguryeo"), which briefly rose in rebellion against Silla. Taebong also considered itself to be a successor of Goguryeo, as did Goryeo, the state that replaced Silla to rule the unified Korean peninsula, founded by King Taejo Wanggeon of Royal House of Kaesong Wang.