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Friday, 31 January 2014

Korea's NSFW, Part IV: Korean surnames in English-Translated Hentai Manga!? ARE YOU SERIOUS???

A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both North Korea and South Korea. In the Korean language, 'ireum/이름' or 'seong-myeong/姓名' usually refers to the family name (seong) and given name (ireum in a narrow sense) together. There are only about 250 Korean family names currently in use, and the three most common (Kim, Lee, and Park) account for nearly half of the population.

Traditional Korean names typically consist of only one syllable. There is no middle name in the Western sense. Many Koreans have their given names made of a generational name syllable and an individually distinct syllable, while this practice is declining in the younger generations. The generational name syllable is shared by siblings in North Korea, and by all members of the same generation of an extended family in South Korea. Married men and women usually keep their full personal names, and children inherit the father's family name.

The family names are subdivided into bon-gwan (clans), i.e. extended families which originate in the lineage system used in previous historical periods. Each clan is identified by a specific place, and traces its origin to a common patrilineal ancestor.

Early names based on the Korean language were recorded in the Three Kingdoms period (57 BCE – 668 CE), but with the growing adoption of the Chinese writing system, these were gradually replaced by names based on Chinese characters. During periods of Mongol influence, the ruling class supplemented their Korean names with Mongolian names. In addition, during the later period of Japanese rule in the early 20th century, Koreans were forced to adopt Japanese names.

Because of the many changes in Korean romanization practices over the years, modern Koreans, when using European languages, romanize their names in various ways, most often approximating the pronunciation in English orthography. Some keep the original order of names, while others reverse the names to match the usual Western pattern.

There are approximately 250 family names in use today. Each family name is divided into one or more clans (bon-gwan), identifying the clan's city of origin. For example, the most populous clan is Gimhae Kim; that is, the Kim clan from the city of Gimhae. Clans are further subdivided into various pa, or branches stemming from a more recent common ancestor, so that a full identification of a person's family name would be clan-surname-branch. For example, "Gyeongju Yi-ssi" (Gyeongju Lee Clan, or Lee Clan of Gyeongju) and "Yeonan-Yissi" (Lee Clan of Yeonan) are, technically speaking, completely different surnames, even though both are, in most places, simply referred to as "Yi" or "Lee". This also means that people from the same clan are considered to be of same blood, such that marriage of a man and a woman of same surname and "bon-gwan" is considered a strong taboo, regardless of how distant the actual lineages may be, even to the present day.

Traditionally, Korean women keep their family names after their marriage, but their children take the father's surname. In the pre-modern, patriarchal Korean society people were extremely conscious of familial values and their own family identities. Korean women keep their surnames after marriage based on traditional reasoning that it is what they inherited from their parents and ancestors, and cannot be changed. According to traditions, each clan publishes a comprehensive genealogy (jokbo) every 30 years.

There are around a dozen two-syllable surnames, all of which rank after the 100 most common surnames. The five most common family names, which together make up over half of the Korean population, are used by over 20 million people in South Korea.

It seems that Shingo Uryuu f-ed Airi Sena and produced lewd sounds which contain three notable Korean Surnames.
Yee-ouch.

In this fourth part of Korea's NSFW, we will talk about on three surnames that included in English-translated Hentai Manga. OH, AHN and HAN or HAHN - three surnames that can be victimized, available in any lewd byeontae-manhwas (Hentai Manga in Korean). Let's take a look on the outline of these three notable surnames.


Oh (오/吳)
Wu is the Pinyin transliteration of the Chinese surname 吳 (Traditional Chinese), 吴 (Simplified Chinese), which is the tenth most common surname in Mainland China. Several other, less common Chinese surnames with different pronunciations are also transliterated into English as "Wu": 武, 伍, 仵, 烏, 鄔 and 巫. The Cantonese and Hakka transliteration of 吳 is Ng, a syllable made entirely of a nasal consonant while the Min Nan transliteration of 吳 is Goh or Ngoh, depending on the regional variations in Min Nan pronunciation. In Vietnamese, many of those are read differently, for example Võ or Vũ for 武, Ngô for 吳, Ô for 烏.

Wu (or Woo or Wou) is also the Cantonese transliteration of the different Chinese surname 胡 (see Hu), used in Hong Kong, and by overseas Chinese of Cantonese speaking areas of Guangdong, or Hong Kong origin.

吳 is also one of the most common surnames in Korea. It is spelled 오 in Hangul and romanized O by the three major romanization systems, but more commonly spelled Oh in South Korea. The Oh Clan was originated during the reign of King Jijeung-Maripgan, the 22nd King of Silla Kingdom. It is also related far back in Chinese history with the name "Zhou".

"Wu" (吴) can be translated into English as "god-like" or "the highest", as shown by some translations from ancient texts.

The few famous people with the family name of "Wu" in China were emperors or warriors. However, there is a good number of more contemporary well-known people with this surname.

Based on the Population Census in Korea, 2000 - which was provided by Statistics Korea (통계청), there are 706,908 people who bear the surname of Oh. There are 14 designated clans (Bongwan/본관/本館) which is related to Oh lineage (e.g: Gochang, Haeju, Dongbok, Boseong, Ulsan, Gunwi, Naju, Nagan, Yeosan, Jangheung, Pyeonghae, Hamyang, Hampyeong and Hwasun).

Notable Oh clansmen are Oh Ji-ho (actor), Sandra Oh Mi-joo (Korean-Canadian Actress) and Oh Se-hoon (Former Mayor of Seoul).


Han/Hahn (한/韓)
Han (韓) is the common English spelling of 한, a common Korean family name. According to the 2000 census, 한 (韓) is the 7th most common surname in the Republic of Korea. In Sino-Korean, it literally means "country" or "leader."

As with all Korean family names, the holders of the Han surname are divided into different patrilineal clans, or lineages, known in Korean as bon-gwan, based on their ancestral seat. Most such clans trace their lineage back to a specific founder. This system was at its height under the yangban aristocracy of the Joseon Dynasty, but it remains in use today. There are approximately 241 such clans claimed by South Koreans.

Cheongju Han (韓) clan is considered one of the noble clans of Korea, with the Gyeongju Kim, Gimhae Kim, Miryang Park, Gyeongju Seok, Pyeongyang Ko, and Jeonju Lee clans. In the Silla Dynasty, all of the Cheongju Hans were considered seonggeol, or "sacred bone", the highest rank. In the Joseon Dynasty, the Cheongju Han clan produced 6 queens and were considered the highest of the yangban class next to the Jeonju Lee. Considered one of the most royal clans since Gija Joseon and Gojoseon, the noble clan of Han received the most generals of the prominent Joseon Dynasty, and Han Myeong-Hui, who was Joseon's greatest general, was part of Cheongju Han. The Han are descendants of the hero Gija, who was a Shang Dynasty king, and rode his white horse and set a nation in "The Farthest East". The nobles with the surname Han were greatly praised, and not to be bothered with.

There are two Korean surnames which are believed to be related and share common ancestry and origin with the Cheongju Han clan. The Taewon Seonwoo clan and the Hangju Gi clan are believed to have originated from the same root as the Cheongju Han clan. According to the genealogical records the last King of Gojoseon, Gijun of Gojoseon is believed to have had three sons, U-Pyeong (우평), U-Seong (우성) and U-Ryang (우량). During Korea's Three Kingdoms period, U-Pyeong is said to have settled in Goguryeo and his descendants later established the Taewon Seonwoo Clan, U-Seong is said to have settled in Baekje and his descendants later established the Hangju Gi Clan and finally U-Ryang is said to have settled in Silla and his descendants later established the Cheongju Han Clan establishing its bon-gwan in Cheongju.

Many Korean historians believe that Gijun of Gojoseon was actually "Hanjun"(한준) of Gojoseon and had the surname Han (韓) not Gi and that all of the Kings of Gija Joseon were of the surname Han (韓). Gija Joseon, which was believed to be of surname Gi, was in reality Han (韓).

There is a controversy on where Gija is from, which is believed to be from the Chinese Shang Dynasty, Gija as a paternal uncle (or brother) of the last emperor of the Chinese Shang Dynasty, King Zhou, however it is likely that Gija is a Dongyi, a native people in the East of China. Gija's and his descendants were also believed to have the surname Han (韓) as King Jun of Gojoseon the last King of Gojoseon and descendant of Gija claimed himself as the King of Han (한왕; 韓王) with the foundation of Mahan part of the Samhan after fleeing from Wiman. With this it shows that the surname Han may have existed since the time of Gija Joseon or Gojoseon and establishes the Han (韓) clan as the oldest surname in Korea dating back to around 5000 years ago, and to have founded and ruled Gojoseon and Mahan.

With this Surname Han (韓) is considered one of the Great surnames of Korea which have once been royalties consisting of Han (Gija Joseon) Go (Goguryeo), Buyeo (Baekje), Kim, Bak/Park, Seok (Silla), Dae (Balhae), Wang (Goryeo), Yi/Lee (Joseon).

However there are also many Korean historians which deny any existence of Gija and Gija Joseon, accepting it as a legend. The notable Han clansmen are Han Myeong-sook, Han Duck-soo and Han Seung-soo (former Prime Ministers of Korean Republic) plus with three queen consorts during Joseon Dynasty: Queen Gonghye, Queen Jangsun and Queen Dowager In-soo. Joseph 'Joe' Hahn of Linkin Park belongs to this clan too.


Ahn (안/安)
Ahn, also romanized An, is a Korean family name. It literally means "tranquility." In 2000, there were 637,786 people bearing this surname in South Korea, making it the 20th most common family name in the country, with roughly 2% of the country's population. North Korea does not release figures for surnames, but the percentage is expected to be similar. The surname is also used in China.

In the traditional Korean clan system, which is still the basis of family registry in South Korea, each clan is distinguished by its bon-gwan, the notional ancestral seat of the clan. Typically each clan claims a different person as its founder, although there are exceptions. 109 Ahn clans are extant today. However, most of these are very small. The majority of Ahn's claim membership in the Sunheung Ahn clan (the highest and most noble clan of Ahn's). The Kwangju and Juksan clans are also quite large and are associated with "blue-blood" status; in addition to these, the Tamjin, Gongsan, Chungju, Dongju, Jeongwon, Ansan, Jecheon, Angang, and Jucheon clans are significant.

The 2000 South Korean census counted 468,827 members of the "Sunheung" Ahn clan (순흥안씨, 順興安氏). Their ancestral seat is in modern-day Sunheung-myeon, in Yeongju, Northern Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. They have enjoyed "blue-blood" status as nobility (Yangban) since their earliest history in the Goryeo Dynasty and throughout the Chosun Dynasty (July 1392 - August 1910). The founder of the Sunheung Ahn was a famously petty and meticulous official of Koryeo named Ahn Ja-mi. The Neo-Confucian philosopher Ahn Hyang, who introduced the Confucian social and government system to Korea, was his great-grandson, and is generally numbered among the clan's most illustrious members. During Colonial Japan and during the founding of the democratic government of Korea, the most influential and respected figures are Dosan Ahn Chang-ho and Thomas Ahn Jung-geunIn the modern day ROK, AhnLab CEO, Charles Ahn Cheol-soo competed in 18th Presidential Election against Juliana Park Geun-hye (Saenuri; Current President of Korean Republic) and Timothy Moon Jae-in (DemUtd) but later withdrew from the election. Another Ahn clansman is a speed skater sensation, Viktor Ahn Hyun-soo who is represented Korean Republic in speed skating before he switched allegiance to Russia during 2014 Sochi Winterlympics.