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This blog may contain not-so-strong languages and slightly strong ecchi pictures. Please proceed with caution.

Sunday, 29 September 2013

Stride for Victory, Part I: Busan-Gyeongnam Racecourse Park


Busan-Gyeongnam Racecourse Park (Hanja: 釜山慶南競馬公園) in 929 Garak Boulevard/Garak-daero, Beombang-dong 152-beonji, Busan Gangseo-gu, officially opened to the public in September 2005, was host to the horseback riding events of the 2002 Busan Asian Games. 

The park spans an area of over 1,243,101㎡, reaching into both Busan Metropole (Beombang-dong, Gangseo-gu) and Southern Gyeongsang a.k.a Gyeongnam Province (Suga-dong, Gimhae City) and boasts stands seating up to 300,000 people, 98 sports facilities, 3 sand race tracks, and a parking facility. Race tracks are wider than the lanes on a highway, providing viewers with fast and thrilling races. Races are held every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday and a total of 12 races take place each racing day. 

Not just a favorite spot for horse-racing, the park also contains an ecological park, a children's horseback riding site, flower beds, and the largest in-line skating park and cycling lanes in the country, making it a favorite leisure spot for citizens of all ages.

Thursday, 26 September 2013

Scars of Imjin Invasion, Part I: Jukseong-ri Castle, Busan Gijang-gun


The Japanese Invasions of Korea or Imjin Invasion comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief ceasefire in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended by 1598 in a military stalemate and the withdrawal of Japanese forces from the Korean peninsula.

The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering Joseon Dynasty Korea and Ming Dynasty China. The Japanese forces experienced success during both initial phases of the invasion, capturing both Seoul and Pyongyang, but continuous defeats at sea, logistical difficulties, and the numerical superiority of the combined Ming and Joseon armies eventually resulted in a withdrawal towards coastal areas and a military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in September 1598, occupying Japanese forces restricted to garrisons in coastal fortresses in the south, and a continued lack of security at sea, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years, ultimately resulting in the normalization of relations.

In Korean, the first invasion (1592–1596) is literally called the "Japanese (倭 |wae|) Disturbance (亂 |ran|) of Imjin" (1592 being an Imjin year in the sexagenary cycle). In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after then reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation" (壬辰衛國戰爭), where renchen (壬辰) is the Chinese reading of Imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki (Bunroku referring to the Japanese era under the Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596). The second invasion (1597–1598) is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu Year" and "Keichō no eki", respectively. In Japanese, the war was also called "Kara iri" (唐入り, literally "entry to China") in Edo period (17–19C) because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would ultimately change their objectives and be confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war. 

The first topic for this blog is the Japanese Castle in Jukseong-ri (Hanja: 機張竹城里倭城). This castle is located in Jukseong-ri, Gijang-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan Metropole, the Republic of Korea. This is a stone fortress built by the Japanese general, Kuroda Nagamasa who was defending this area against the Korean Joseon army, in about June, 1593, the second year of the Japanese Invasions.

This wall-fortress built on the stronghold in the rear coast of the village of Jukseong-ri, was 11,176 pyeong (SI Unit/USCS: 36,945.45 sq m/397,677.55 sq ft) in area, about 300 m in circumference, 4 m in height. and three-storied. It has been called the Gijang fortress in Japan. It was placed at the strategically important point linking together the Seosaengpo Japanese Fortress in Ulsan, the Hakseong fortress and the Busanjinjiseong Fortress. Originally, it was built with the stones which had once constituted the Dumopo Fortress, so there still remain the footstones of it in a row around the villages in Dumopo.

Today, the surrounding areas of the fortress are used as farming fields, but the stone wall still remains maintaining its original state relatively well.

Monday, 23 September 2013

Serious Case of Environmental Issues in Korea: Dongbin Inner Harbor, Pohang Buk-gu, Northern Gyeongsang


The water quality at the Dongbin Inner Harbor (hanja: 東濱內港) in Pohang Buk-gu, Northern Gyeongsang (specific location: Dongbin-dong 1~2-ga) is getting worse due to the sewage and the waste water from communities. Furthermore, the Dongbin Inner Harbor appears stagnant water flow because the Harbor is almost isolated from the coastal area and is supplied by tidal currents through only the Yeongil Bay.

This study represents a numerical simulation of inflowing water passing through an inland canal to be planned connecting Dongbin Inner Harbor and the Hyeongsan River. For the study, an improvement of water quality is simulated at the Harbor. 

To simulate the movement of waters, the current system is first simulated by using RMA2, a commercial program that considers tidal current and river flowing. A purified simulation for the fresh water from the Hyeongsan River is then simulated by using RMA4. For the comparative result of the numerical model, both the present condition and the future condition (after construction of an inland canal) is simulated. The results of these conditions reasonably simulate a real situation at the Dongbin Inner Harbor. 

The Dongbin Harbor Restoration project, a large scale environmental restoration project and a long-cherished one by Pohang citizens, is under way as scheduled. The Dongbin Harbor Restoration project is a large scale environmental project to build the Dongbin Canal and usher in the re-opening of the Dongbin waterway, which has been polluted by the rapid urbanization, as well as development with hotels, condominiums, a water park, and seaside markets along the coast.

Compensation of residents living in the project area has been completed with a 88% of removal rate. After successful bidders are selected, demolition of the residential houses will soon be fully under way. This will be Pohang city’s first project to demolish an existing old town and build a 21st Century advanced nation-type city. Pohang expects the Dongbin Harbor Project will help revive local business areas and the old city center, prevent natural disaster, and activate tourism as a model case.

After construction of an inland canal, the water quality at the Dongbin Inner Harbor will be compared to the fresh water quality of the Hyeongsan River at the steady state. The result of simulation will be used to decide the most effective design of the canal.

Namo Palbeon Daebosal, Part II: Beomeosa, Busan Geumjeong-gu


Beomeosa (Hanja: 梵魚寺; literally as the Temple of the Nirvana Fish) is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism in 546 Beomeosa Avenue/Beomeosa-ro, Cheongnyong-dong, Busan Geumjeong-gu, South Korea. Built on the slopes of Mount Geumjeong, it is one of the country's most known urban temples. It is also claimed that the fish came from Nirvana, the Buddhist state of non-suffering. Therefore the temple also became known as 'The temple where fish from Nirvana Play.'

Beomeosa was constructed in 678 during the reign of First King of Unified Silla Dynasty, Munmu the Great, by the monk Uisang. It became known as one of the ten great temples of the Hwaeom sect, although like most Korean temples it was later assimilated into the Jogye Order. In the geography book 'Donggukyeojiseungram/동국여지승람' the origin of Beomeosa Temple is written as follows: 
"There is a well on the top of Mt. Geumjeong and the water of that well is gold. The golden fish in the well rode the colorful clouds and came down from the sky. This is why the mountain is named Geumsaem/금샘 (gold well) and the temple is named 'fish from heaven'." 

At its largest, during the Goryeo dynasty, it was much larger than it is today - with over 360 rooms and more than a thousand monks in residence. The temple was burned to the ground in 1592 during the Japanese Imjin Invasion but not before priest Seosan had defeated a Japanese army here. It was reconstructed in 1602, but was burned again by an accidental fire. In 1613 it was rebuilt again. The main hall (Daeungjeon) and the front gate (Iljumun) date to this reconstruction.

The mountain where Beomeosa is found is said to have huge rock at the summit where there is a golden well which never, ever dries up. The water of this well is believed to have very special magical properties as one day a golden fish came from heaven and has lived there ever since. Designated as a natural monument, the wisteria woods and valleys are most beautiful in May.

On December 26, 2011, the Los Angeles Times printed a story of the fighting monks at this temple. South Korean Buddhist monk Ando demonstrates Sunmudo martial arts techniques. Monks from Beomeosa Temple are famed for defeating Japanese invaders during the late 16th century and again during the Japanese occupation of Korea in the early 20th century.

Namo Palbeon Daebosal, Part I: Introduction to Buddhism and its Early History in Korea

Namo Palbeon Daebosal (나모팔번대보살) is the Korean translation for Namo Hachiman Daibosatsu. Buddhism flourished in Korea since Three Kingdoms Period. When Buddhism was originally introduced to Korea from Former Qin in 372, or about 800 years after the death of the historical Buddha, Shamanism was the indigenous religion. As it was not seen to conflict with the rites of nature worship, Buddhism was allowed to blend in with Shamanism. Thus, the mountains that were believed to be the residence of spirits in pre-Buddhist times became the sites of Buddhist temples.

Korean Shamanism held three spirits in especially high regard: Sanshin (the Mountain Spirit), Deokseong (the Recluse) and Chilseong (the Spirit of the Seven Stars, the Big Dipper). Korean Buddhism accepted and absorbed these three spirits and, even today, special shrines are set aside for them in many temples. The Mountain Spirit receives particular recognition in an attempt to appease the local mountain spirits, on whose land the temple stands. This blend of Buddhism and Shamanism became known as Korean Buddhism, although the fundamental teachings of the Buddha remained. 

When Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century CE, the Korean peninsula was politically subdivided into three kingdoms: Goguryeo in the north, Baekje in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast. There is concrete evidence of an earlier introduction of Buddhism than traditionally believed. A mid-4th century tomb, unearthed near P’yǒngyang, is found to incorporate Buddhist motifs in its ceiling decoration.

Some Korean Buddhist monks traveled to China or India in order to study Buddhism in the late Three Kingdoms Period, especially in the 6th century. In 526, The monk Gyeomik (謙益) from Baekje travelled via the southern sea route to India to learn Sanskrit and study Vinaya. The monk Paya (波若; 562–613?) from Goguryeo is said to have studied under the Tiantai master Zhiyi, and other Korean monks of the period brought back numerous scriptures from abroad and conducted missionary activity throughout Korea.
Several schools of thought developed in Korea during these early times:
  • the Samnon (三論宗, or Sanlun in Chinese) school focused on the Indian Mādhyamika (Middle Path) doctrine,
  • the Gyeyul (戒律宗, or Vinaya in Sanskrit) school was mainly concerned with the study and implementation of moral discipline (śīla), and
  • the Yeolban (涅槃宗, or Nirvāna in Sanskrit) school, which was based in the themes of the Mahāparinirvāna-sūtra

Toward the end of the Three Kingdoms Period, the Wonyung (圓融宗, or Yuanrong in Chinese) school was formed. It would lead the actualization of the metaphysics of interpenetration as found in the Avatamsaka Sutra and soon was considered the premier school, especially among the educated aristocracy. This school was later known as Hwaeom (華嚴宗, or Huayan in Chinese) and was the longest lasting of these "imported" schools. It had strong ties with the Beopseong (法性宗), the indigenous Korean school of thought.

The date of the first mission from Korea to Japan is unclear, but it is reported that a second detachment of scholars was sent to Japan upon invitation by the Japanese rulers in 577. The strong Korean influence on the development of Buddhism in Japan continued through the Unified Silla period; only in the 8th century did independent study by Japanese monks begin in significant numbers.

In 372, the monk Sundo (順道, or Shundao in Chinese) was sent by Fu Jiān (苻堅) of Former Qin to the court of the King Sosurim of Goguryeo. He brought texts and statues with him and the Goguryeo royalty and their subjects quickly accepted his teachings. Buddhism in China was in a rudimentary form, consisting of the law of cause and effect and the search for happiness. This had much in common with the predominant Shamanism, which likely led to the quick assimilation of Buddhism by the people of Goguryeo.

Early Buddhism in Silla developed under the influence of Goguryeo. Some monks from Goguryeo came to Silla and preached among the people, making a few converts. In 551, Hyeryang (惠亮), a Goguryeo monk was appointed the first National Patriarch (Guktong) of Silla. He first presided over the One Hundred Seat Dharma Assembly (Baekjwa Hanghoe) and the Dharma of Eight Prohibitions (Palgwan Beop).

In 384, the Indian monk Marananta arrived in Baekje and the royal family received the similar strain of Buddhism he brought. King Asin proclaimed, "people should believe in Buddhism and seek happiness." In 526, the Baekje monk Gyeomik went directly to Central India and came back with a collection of Vinaya texts, accompanied by the Indian monk Paedalta. After returning to Baekje he translated the Buddhist scriptures in Sanskrit into seventy-two volumes. The Vinaya School in Baekje was established by Gyeomik, about a century earlier than that of in China. As a result of the work, he is regarded as the father of Vinaya studies in Korea.

Buddhism did not enter the kingdom of Silla until the 5th century. The common people were first attracted to Buddhism here, but there was resistance among the aristocrats. In 527, however, a prominent court official named Ichadon presented himself to King Beopheung and announced he had become Buddhist. The king had him beheaded, but when the executioner cut off his head, it is said that milk poured out instead of blood. Paintings of this are in the temple at Haeinsa, hapcheon, Southern Gyeongsang and a stone monument honoring his martyrdom is in the National Museum of Gyeongju.

During the reign of the next king, King Jinheung, the growth of Buddhism was encouraged—eventually being recognized as the national religion of Silla. Additionally, selected young men were physically and spiritually trained at Hwarangdo according to Buddhist principles to be able to defend the kingdom. King Jinheung later became a monk himself.

The monk Jajang (慈藏) is credited with having been a major force in the adoption of Buddhism as a national religion. Jajang is also known for his participation in the founding of the Korean sangha, a type of monastic community.

Another great scholar to emerge from the Silla Period was Wonhyo. He renounced his religious life to better serve the people and even married a princess for a short time and had a son. He wrote many treatises and his philosophy centered on the unity and interrelatedness of all things. He set off to China to study Buddhism with a close friend, Uisang, but only made it part of the way there. The legend is that Wonhyo awoke one night very thirsty, found a container with cool water, drank, and returned to sleep. The next morning he saw the container from which he had drunk was a human skull and he realized all enlightenment depended on the mind. He saw no reason to continue to China, so he returned home. His companion, Uisang, continued to China and after studying ten years, offered a poem to his master in the shape of a seal that geometrically represents infinity. The poem contained the essence of the Avatamsaka Sutra.

Buddhism was so successful during this period that many kings converted and cities/places were even renamed after famous places during the time of Buddha.

In 668, the kingdom of Silla succeeded in unifying the whole Korean peninsula, giving rise to a period of political stability that lasted for about one hundred years. This led to a high point in the scholarly studies of Buddhism in Korea. In general, the most popular areas of study were Wonyung, Yusik (Ch. 唯識; Weishi; "consciousness-only"; the East Asian form of Yogācāra), Jeongto (Pure Land), and the indigenous Korean Beopseong ("dharma-nature school"). The monk Wonhyo taught the "Pure Land"-practice of yeombul, which would become very popular amongst both scholars and laypeople, and has had a lasting influence on Buddhist thought in Korea. His work, which attempts a synthesis of the seemingly divergent strands of Indian and Chinese Buddhist doctrine, makes use of the essence-function (體用, or che-yong) framework, which was popular in native East Asian philosophical schools. His work was instrumental in the development of the dominant school of Korean Buddhist thought, known variously as Beopseong, Haedong (海東, "Korean") and later as Jungdo (中道, "Middle way")

Wonhyo's friend Uisang (義湘) went to Chang'an, where he studied under Huayan patriarchs Zhiyan (智儼; 600–668) and Fazang (法藏; 643–712). When he returned after twenty years, his work contributed to Hwaeom and became the predominant doctrinal influence on Korean Buddhism, together with Wonhyo's tong bulgyo thought. Hwaeom principles were deeply assimilated into the Korean meditational school, the Seon school, where they made a profound effect on its basic attitudes.

Influences from Silla Buddhism in general, and from these two philosophers in particular, even crept "backwards" into Chinese Buddhism. Wonhyo's commentaries were very important in shaping the thought of the preeminent Chinese Buddhist philosopher Fazang, and Woncheuk's commentary on the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra had a strong influence in Tibetan Buddhism.

The intellectual developments of Silla Buddhism brought with them significant cultural achievements in many areas, including painting, literature, sculpture, and architecture. During this period, many large and beautiful temples were built. Two crowning achievements were the temple Bulguksa and the cave-retreat of Seokguram (石窟庵). Bulguksa was famous for its jeweled pagodas, while Seokguram was known for the beauty of its stone sculpture.

Museo di Shinku (Shinku's Museum): Gwangju National Museum - Only in Honam-Jeolla Region


Gwangju National Museum (Hanja: 國立光州博物館) in 110 Haseo Avenue (Haseo-ro/하서로; REMEMBER - not Haseo/하세오 in .hack//series), Maegok-dong san 83-3 beonji, Gwangju Buk-gu collects and preserves cultural relics from Southern Jeolla Province. The exhibits are grouped in 7 categories according to period and type. The Prehistoric Hall displays stone tools from the Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Ages, as well as other relics from the early Iron Age. Samguk Hall displays many earthenware and ironware from the Large Onggwan in the Jeolla Provincial area. 

In the street of Maehwa (apricot tree) in City of Light, we can see an aerial tile-roofed house at Maehwa Village. The site is wide and natural landscape is so fresh and we can recollect the spirit of our nation through the ancient history and culture. A quiet, cozy environment is the very Gwangju National Museum. Looking around from place to place of Gwangju National Museum arranged on the sunny ground, outdoor exhibited ancient relics are coming up on us lively.

We face up to 'Jangun-dong Five-story Stone Pagoda' in the right side immediately after entering the gate of the museum located in Jangun-dong. At this stone pagoda that is presumed to be of the Goryeo dynasty, we can confirm what Roof stone of the pagoda structure is. In addition, we can see the structures of southern-style and northern-style dolmens directly and also the miniature of the celadon porcelain kiln in Yongun-ri, Gangjin-gun that informs the kiln structure and manufacturing technique of the celadon porcelain of the Goryeo dynasty.

In the permanent exhibition hall, there are twin-lion stone lanterns in Jungheung Mountain Fortress that was designated as National Treasure No. 103. Two male lions face each other and hold the stone lanterns, and keep the central hall. Following two male lion stone lanterns at the central hall lobby, the first floor exhibition continued to the Buddhist Art Hall and the Painting Hall.

In the Buddhist Art Hall we can touch the ancient Buddhist culture from the Buddhist art works excavated at every place of Gwangju and Jeonnam area such as a bronze temple bell, a bronze safe, gilt bronze standing Buddha statue, and others. Besides, we can appreciate the paintings of Honam (Jeolla provinces) painters such as Yang Paengson, Yun Duseo and Heo Ryeon and others who were the painters from the middle of the Joseon dynasty to the modern age. Looking into Gamulcheop (picture book passed down from a family) that is Yun Duseo's picture book (album), we can see the new style of pictures that contain his thoughts and intentions. This hall exhibits cultural Items related to the religion, the Painting Hall exhibits work of artists of the Honam district from the Joseon and modern periods. Jeolla Province is also considered the birthplace of Korean Pottery. The Goryeo Pottery Exhibit Hall showcases the transition from the Cheongja of Goryeo Period to Joseon Period's Buncheongsagi and Baekja. It is possible to witness the entire pottery-making process at once. Pottery items are also on display at Joseon Buncheongsagi ㆍBaekja Hall. 

The second floor is a relic exhibition hall. The traditional arts arranged according to the age and subject is exhibited. We can see the prehistoric culture, Culture of the pre-Three Kingdoms period, culture of the Three Kingdoms, ancient culture, Goryeo celadon, Joseon grayish blue powder celadon, Joseon White Celadon Exhibition Hall and Sinan Museum of Undersea Cultural Relics. Here we can see the earthenwares of the prehistoric age with many curiosities such as "What do the pots which our ancestors used look like? Does it have a handle? Does it have a lid? Is the bottom round-shaped? Is it pointed? What's the difference between the earthenware and the pottery?" For example, there are not many vessels having a lid, but without handles. The name of a vessel is difficult to decode and the shape is difficult to catch the traits. However if we look into them closely, we can gain many benefits. At the Wonsamguk hall, a gilt bronze crown excavated from an old tomb at Shinchon-ri, Bannam-myeon, Naju city, Southern Jeolla takes catch of our eye. It is the relic of the Three States age designated as National Treasure No. 295. We can also see the Shinan seafloor relics which are famous for the Goryeo celadon porcelain. The Sinan Museum of Undersea Cultural Relics is a unique exhibit hall with items on display from a trade ship submerged for 600 years in the Shinan Sea. The items were excavated during 11 operations taking place from 1976 to 1984 and totaled 20,681 works of pottery, metal, stone, wood and glass items. 

Coming out of the permanent exhibition hall and turning to the left, there is Nurigwan building. Initially opening as the 'Children's Museum', the building has many mysterious and valuable exhibitions to both children and adults. This is the place where we can see and learn the ancient culture of Namdo from the childhood. As a museum originally is the effective study place to children, especially Children's Museum offers a lot of exciting history experiences to children. How did people live in the Bronze Age? We can check the constellation table made at Bronze Age and try directly how they made fire. Visitors can make the pottery directly and make a time capsule travel to 2,100 years ago with watching a video on the relics of Shinchang-dong, Gwangju Gwangsan-gu.

There is the sensory experience hall for the handicapped kids. 'Touching and feeling', they can learn the ancient history and culture. They can hear the sound by playing a string instrument and a temple bell that were played 2,100 years ago. Hearing the explanation about the relics with a headphone on is more realistic.

Gwangju National Museum opens several events and special exhibitions on occasion. Cultural and educational programs for the inhabitants of Gwangju and Jeonnam are various. It runs visiting and attending museum the whole year round and executes the cultural education for the family unit, youngsters and teenagers, culture expert process and the like. In addition, there are participating programs which can be in contact with deep art and culture such as “Exciting and Enjoying Saturday Museum”, “We are the kids and families of the museum”, the museum lesson for teachers, and culture creation studio in the museum. Admission is free on the first Sunday of every month and the museum is closed on Mondays.

Sunday, 22 September 2013

Museo di Canaria (Kanaria's Museum): Chuncheon National Museum

Kanaria: I wonder if I can perform a song from Xzibit entitled Symphony in X Major - based on Johann Sebastian Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in this museum.
Opened on October 30, 2002, the Chuncheon National Museum (Hanja: 國立春川博物館) in 70 Useok Avenue/Useok-ro, Seoksa-dong 27-1 beonji, Chuncheon City, Gangwon Province is a storehouse of the cultural heritage of Gangwon Province. It preserves and exhibits the archaeological and artistic treasures of the region, which range in date from the prehistoric era to modern times, and serves as a vital center for academic research and education.

In 2003, the museum building was selected as the “Best Architecture of the Year.” The building is a beautiful cultural space with an elegant and modern exterior that is in perfect harmony with the surrounding mountain setting. The museum also features an auditorium with 230 seats, an outdoor performance stage, a seminar room with simultaneous interpretation facilities, rooms for hands-on programs, and a library.

Chuncheon National Museum unveiled the special exhibition "The Great Cultural Treasures of Gangwon Province" on October 30th 2012 in a celebration of the tenth anniversary of its opening. Running until December 9th 2012, this special exhibition gathered culture treasures with connection to Gangwon Province from all across the nation into one place.

The cultural assets include Yitaejohojeogwonbon (National Treasure 131, family register of King Taejo Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Joseon Dynasty), Chochungdosubyeong (National Treasure 595, folding screen embroidered with grass and insects) as well as relics found inside octagonal nine storied pagoda of Woljeongsa (National Treasure 1375), and relics from seated wooden Manjusri statue of Sangwonsa (National Treasure 793), all of which are open to public for the first time in history. 

Desu Pandemic is infected in Daejeon-desu!

Daejeon-desu? Yes it is. That's a Japanese translation for It's Daejeon.
Hanbit Tower (literally as The Tower of Great Light), located at 37-12 Expo Avenue, Doryong-dong 3-1 beonji, Daejeon Yuseong-gu is a symbol of Daejeon Expo Science Park, illustrates the connection between the wisdom of the past and the present. Using light and science motifs, the tower also symbolizes a collective willingness to leap into the future. The first observatory of its kind, its architecture is a circular-loop design, reminiscent of a space station. It is 39 meters high and it provides nice panoramic views of Daejeon Metropole (Native Korean: Hanbat/한밭).

Two elevator units carry 20 people at once during operation hours. During their ride to the observatory, elevator passengers enjoy views of space through a 30-second video presentation. As soon as the elevator opens on the observation deck, bright natural light floods into the room through glass windows.

In the 360-degree observatory, visitors can see the international exhibition development site and Daejeon MBC to the East; Aqua Resort Theater, 3D Theater, IMAX Theater, National Science Museum and Yuseong-gu to the west; Hanbit Square, Music Fountain, Expo Bridge, Dunsan Grand Park, Government Complex Daejeon and downtown Daejeon toward the south; and Kumdori Land and Wooseongi Mountain toward the north.

Hanbit Tower, a 93m tall landmark standing upright at the center of Daejeon Expo Science Park, signifies the ascending spirit of Korean people who look for a new path toward the future as shown in the theme of EXPO 1993, “The Challenge of a New Road to Development.”

The exterior of the tower is the combination of a vertical pillar with a horizontal loop-shaped structure, which visually divides the tower into three parts. By bringing the concept of time to the structure, each of the three parts indicates the past, present and future and the overall look of the tall structure standing upright signifies that the past, present and future are connected one another on our path to harmony and prosperity. The lower part of the tower below the observation deck symbolizes Cheomseongdae in Gyeongju, Northern Gyeongsang, the world’s oldest astronomical observatory from Silla dynasty, and is made of 1993 granite bricks used in the inaugural year. 

The central part of the tower, which is located at 40 m high and functions as an observation deck, signifies contemporary Korea as a science powerhouse. The two round windows in the front of the deck symbolize the eyes of the tower that breathe new life into the inanimate structure, and symbolize the foresight of Daejeon EXPO 1993. The combination of the conical-shaped top with light emitting from it signify the spirit of a Korean community inspired by the past and working to build a better future.

Museo di Kirakishou (Kirakishou's Museum): Daegu National Museum

Korean Shitty Facts: Koreans consume dog meat. Dog meat (of which Bosintang is one of the most commonly served dishes) is still regularly consumed and can be found easily at many restaurants across South Korea. In 2006 it was, in fact, the 4th most commonly consumed meat in South Korea, after beef, chicken and pork (an industry value of 1.4 trillion won). That's why Kirakishou ate Detective Kun-Kun.
Opened in 1994, the Daegu National Museum (Hanja: 國立大邱博物館) in 321 Cheongho Avenue (Cheongho-ro), Hwanggeum 1-dong 70-beonji, Daegu Suseong-gu exhibits about 1,300 historical relics collected in the Yeongnam Region. Folklore Hall exhibits replicas of traditional houses and other artifacts of Yeongnam that help visitors better understand the region’s architecture style, lifestyle, religion, etc.

It was built to preserve and exhibit the unique cultural heritage of Daegu Metropole and Northern Gyeongsang Province. It is a neat brick building with two basement floors. There are three exhibit halls, a special exhibit hall, experiment study room, audiovisual studio and library. 

At the Archeology Gallery you can see relics ranging from the Neolithic Era to the Three Kingdoms Period chronologically. At the Art History Gallery you can see and learn about the Buddhist culture of Northern Gyeongsang. Here you can see Buddhist sculptures, Buddha statues and Buddhist crafts. The Goryeo celadon and Buncheong ware are also displayed here. At the Traditional Folk Life Gallery you can learn about the Seonbi culture and the beliefs and rituals of the Yeongnam Region, and see traditional Korean houses.

You can also enjoy the Outdoor Gallery where a five-storied stone pagoda stands. There are other facilities where visitors can participate in museum activities. You can try traditional dyeing, explore the traditional herbs and learn about agricultural plants. Do not miss going here because this is where you can learn about traditional herbs used for medicine, plants and grains. Resting in the natural surroundings at the wildflower and plant walkway or the Ecology Valley can be very relaxing.

Saturday, 21 September 2013

Inside Deoksugung, Part I: Junghwajeon Throne Hall


The Junghwajeon Throne Hall (Hanja: 中和殿) in Deoksugung (Hanja: 德壽宮) was the center of politics during the period of the Great Korean Empire (1897-1910) and served as the backdrop to critical discussions on national affairs among the country’s great leaders. The elaborateness of the hall’s interior is said to reflect the confidence of Emperor Gojong Gwangmu, Emperor Tae of Korean Empire (26th king of the Joseon Dynasty and 1st Emperor of Korean Empire, reigning 1863-1907) in his ability to effectual lead the country into the 20th century. One of the most striking parts of the building is the pair of dragons that decorates the canopy above the throne of the king. These dragons can be also seen on the ceiling of Junghwajeon and were representative designs of the Deoksugung, the imperial palace at that time. Though the Junghwajeon was originally built in 1902 as a multi-roofed building, it was redesigned as a single-roofed building in 1906 after it caught on fire in 1904.

The Junghwajeon is one of the historical centers of Deoksugung, which stands proudly alongside other notable buildings at the palace, such as: Seogeodang (석어당), Junmyeongdang (준명당), Jeukjodang (즉조당), Jeonggwanheon (정관헌), Deokhongjeon (덕홍전), Borugak (보루각), and Jagyeongnu (자격루).

The Superintendent’s Office of Deoksugung recently announced that Junghwajeon, “The Heart of the Modern History of Korea,” will be open to the public every Saturday from 9am to 4pm. Said to be the pinnacle of palace splendor, it is here at Junghwajeon that Emperor Gojong Gwangmu (the 26th king of the Joseon Dynasty and 1st Emperor of Korean Empire, Born: September 8th 1852 - Died: January 21st 1919) held daily morning meetings with his top officials to discuss matters of national importance. 

Never before seen by the public eye, the inside of Junghwajeon is rumored to be the most majestic, revered place in the Palace and its opening has caused quite a stir in the community. With the recent news comes the opportunity for visitors to the Palace to appreciate important cultural assets of the Palace such as ‘Yongsang,’ seat of the king; ‘Samjeolgokbyeong,’ a tri-fold screen; and ‘Irworobongbyeong or Irworobongdo’ a partition depicting the Sun, the Moon and five hilltops. The opening of Junghwajeon is a wonderful opportunity for visitors to see some of these historically significant articles up close and personal. 

For the safety of visitors and the preservation of the area, only 20 visitors will be allowed in at a time. No cameras, food or combustibles are allowed inside the premises. Those engaging in inappropriate behavior may be denied entrance by palace security guards. 

Moe-Korea's Dev Log, Part II: Why I love Korea so much?

I've started to write blog about Korea and Moe Girls since December 2012. I adore Korea so much because of the vivid environment and culture. Nevertheless, Korea and Malaysia have shared the painful past of Japanese Occupation. Korea was annexed to Japanese Empire in 1910 by dethroning Emperor Sunjong, Last King of Joseon Dynasty and Emperor of Korean Empire while Malaysia (previously known as Malaya Federation and British Colonies of Sabah and Sarawak) was fallen to the Imperial Japanese Forces during World War II.

I have watched Rozen Maiden since I was 17. Further ado, I learned Hangul and its typing alignment (Windows Default: 2-Beolsik Korean Typing System) and searched for the Database of South Korean Postal Codes. Then, I've associated these seven dolls (including the fake seventh) with the Postal Codes and voilà, there you have it: Rozen Maiden Dolls with the respective positions and Administrative Provinces and Cities in South Korea.

A year later, my uncle bought me a laptop and I've tested it by using Korean Typing Alignment (at that time, I used Windows Vista). I pressed every single Hangul alphabet by using the default English QWERTY keyboard and guess what? The alignment is 100% accurately to the sample of 2-beolsik typing system that I've downloaded via internet. That means, I can type Korean Alphabet without referring to the QWERTY keyboard with Hangul in it.

Now, my laptop is broken and I'm currently using my mom's desktop. It's painful when I attended to MARA University of Technology in Penang (that day I studied Mechanical Engineering) and flunked until my CGPA is running low and get kicked from that hellish university which not provide hands-on (practical work). Now, I'm studying at Port Dickson Polytechnic in Civil Engineering. I think Civil Engineering is suitable for me because my mom is a technician in Civil. So, it is easy for me to talk my mom all about Civil Engineering crappies.

Back to the main topic, this is how I deduced them into the Cities and Provinces in Korea:
1. Suigintou = Seoul Special City (Postal Code: 100-XXX to 158~XXX)
2. Kanaria = Gangwon Province (Postal Code: 200-XXX to 269-XXX)
3. Suiseiseki = Daejeon Metropole (Postal Code: 300-XXX to 306-XXX)
4. Souseiseki = Incheon Metropole (Postal Code: 400-XXX to 409-XXX and 417-XXX)
5. Shinku = Gwangju Metropole (Postal Code: 500-XXX to 506-XXX)
6. Hinaichigo = Busan Metropole (Postal Code: 600-XXX to 619-XXX)
7. Kirakishou = Daegu Metropole (Postal Code: 700-XXX to 711-XXX)
8. Barasuishou = Northern Gyeongsang Province (Postal Code: 712-XXX to 799-XXX)

Ladies and Gentlemen, I will reveal Seven Rozen Maiden Dolls (including the fake seventh) which associated with places in Korea. Click the link that I've highlighted above - this will link you to the specific blog post. List arranged in chronological order.

















Searching Network Provider in Korean Republic, Part II: Korea Telecom (KT)


KT Corporation also known as kt (Korean: 주식회사 케이티; formerly known as Hankook Tongshin/한국통신 or Korea Telecom) is a South Korean integrated wired/wireless telecommunication service provider. Its headquarters is located at 90 Buljeong Avenue/Buljeongno, Jeongja 3-dong 206-beonji, Seongnam Bundang-gu, Gyeonggi Province. The current CEO of KT Corp is Lee Suk-chae/이석채 (2013).

KT focuses on information & communications business, and it has the largest portion of the South Korean local telephone and high-speed Internet business. Originally founded in 1981 as a public corporation, KT actively led Korea’s transition to the information era and played a key role in promoting the growth of Korea into a globally recognized IT superpower. In 2009, KT merged with its mobile subsidiary KTF (Korea Telecom Freetel), paving the way to the convergence of fixed and mobile services. Since KT initially introduced iPhone to South Korea, it constantly seeks new business area, such as media, virtual goods, and global business with its domestic businesses experiences. The company has a well-distributed shareholder structure under which the National Pension Service (NPS) is the largest shareholder (6.81% as of December 31, 2012), but NPS holds no managerial rights over the company. Under the current shareholder structure, no controlling shareholder exists.

KT has adopted most of the corporate governance recommendations that comply with global standards, such as implementing the professional management system and operating an independent board of directors. By separating the roles of the CEO and BOD chairman, KT has effectively established an objective and independent governance system, and is constantly endeavoring to improve its corporate governance structure, as reflected in its actions such as the issuing of the “KT Corporate Governance Charter” and establishment of a Corporate Governance Committee. KT was awarded the Hall of Fame Award (2007–2008) and Grand Prize (2010) by the Corporate Governance Service (CGS) in the CGS-hosted corporate governance evaluation.

Continuous efforts have been made by KT to cultivate an environment where collaboration with partners is encouraged by pursuing measures such as attempting to prevent detrimental effects caused by lowest bid price evaluations, raising the maintenance fee payments, helping promising SMEs to build up on their competitiveness, and seeking to promote more cash payments and acquiring additional financing. In July 2010, in the spirit of promoting collaboration with SMEs, KT announced “the Three No Policy.” This in essence represents KT’s commitment to refrain from practices that hinder the growth of SMEs, such as taking action that causes them to waste their valuable resources, stealing away their technology and ideas or going up against SMEs as a competitor. KT aims to not only implement policies promoting collaboration with partners, but to also help such partners apply their sustainable business policies to other partner companies of their own. To this end, KT is encouraging partners to adopt the cash payment policy more in the partners’ dealings with their own partner companies, and is also endeavouring to have the benefits of higher supply costs shared with these second-tier partner companies as well.

Friday, 20 September 2013

Time has come. Icy Graveyard Shift Girl (Toki Onjouji) at Miryang Eoreumgol.

Oh Gawd. Toki looks deadly cute.
Just north of Mount Cheonhwang, Miryang Eoreumgol sits at an elevation between 600 and 750m and covers an area of 29,752m² (Korean Customary Unit: 9,000 pyeong).  It gets its name and its notoriety from the freezing cold found there even in midsummer. This phenomenon is believed to be due to local airflow patterns, particularly cold air emerging from underground. This ice valley is located at Nammyeong-ri san 95-1 beonji, Sannae-myeon, Miryang City, Southern Gyeongsang Province.

Designated as Korean Republic Natural Monument No.224 in 1970, the valley is unusual in that it begins to freeze in March when the weather becomes warm and thaws in the fall when the weather becomes cold after Cheoseo/처서 (one of the 24 seasonal divisions; about August 23rd). The cold water flowing from the valley has traditionally been used for drinking by nearby residents.

In the winter, the valley generates warm breezes and the water rarely freezes. Because of these unique attributes, the valley is considered one of the Four Mysteries in Miryang and attracts visitors from early summer through fall.

Other notable ice valleys in Korea include Binggye Gyegok in Uiseong (Northern Gyeongsang), Punghyeol Naengcheon in Yanghwa Village (Jinan, Northern Jeolla), and Aircongul in Nari Plain (Ulleung Island, Ulleung County, Northern Gyeongsang).

Searching Network Provider in Korean Republic, Part I: SK Telecom

The first thing you must have in Korea for your vacation is Network Roaming. Let's say if you have Verizon Wireless, Sprint Nextel or AT&T as your default network while you're living in the States, you might be changed into the other network provider when you travel to the other countries. There are three network providers in Korea: SK Telecom, KT (Formerly known as Korea Telecom) and LG Telecom. First of all, I will introduce one of the famous network providers in Korean Republic, the SK Telecom. 

안녕하세요.  SK텔레콤본사에서 오신 것을 환영합니다. 저는 우에스기 미하토 입니다. 무엇을 도와드릴까요?
Good day. Welcome to SK Telecom Main Building. I'm Mihato Uesugi. What can I do for you?
SK Telecom Co., Ltd. (Hangul: SK텔레콤 or 에스케이텔레콤) is a South Korean wireless telecommunications operator, controlled by the SK Group, one of the country's largest chaebol (재벌, equivalent to Zaibatsu in Japan). Its headquarters is located at 65 Eulji Avenue, Euljiro 2-ga 11-beonji, Seoul Jung-gu. The current CEO of SK Telecom is Ha Seong-min/하성민 (2013).

SK Telecom is a provider of mobile service in South Korea, with 50.5% of the market share as of 2008. Since being established on March 29, 1984 the company evolved from a first generation analogue cellular system, to second generation CDMA, then to the world's first third generation synchronized IMT-2000 cellular system. SK Telecom also became the world’s first to commercialize HSDPA in May, 2006.

The company’s current services include NATE, a wired and wireless integrated multi-Internet service, June, a multimedia service, MONETA, a financial service, Telematic service such as NATE Drive and even Digital Home service. In 2004, SK Telecom launched Hanbyul, the world’s first DMB satellite. The carrier currently provides satellite DMB to its subscribers through its subsidiary TU Media Corp. SK Telecom also offers a variety of internet services, many through its subsidiary SK Communications. Cyworld is one of the most popular blogging services in South Korea and NateOn is one of the most popular instant messengers.

SK Telecom was established in March 1984 under the name Korea Mobile Telecommunications Services Corp., but was renamed Hankuk Idong Tongshin Corp. in May 1988. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of the state monopoly phone company, Korea Telecom. In June 1994 SK Group (Formerly Sunkyong Group/선경그룹) became Hankuk Idong Tongshin's largest shareholder. Hankuk Idong Tongshin officially joined the SK Group in January 1997 and changed its name to SK Telecom in March of that year. In October 2000, SK Telecom became the second operator in the world after NTT's DoCoMo to launch a commercial 3G service using W-CDMA technology. In January 2002, this was followed up by launching the world's first CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network, offering greatly increased data transmission speeds.

In May 2005, SK Telecom decided to sell 60% of SK Teletech stock to Pantech. In 2006, SK Teletech has changed its brand name to "SKY" and remains as Pantech's mobile phone line.

In the company's early stages (1984–1993), it launched a mobile phone service for automobiles and paging service. In March 1984, the company started as Korea Mobile Telecommunication Service. In May 1984, the company kicked off mobile communication service for automobiles. In July 1988, the company launched mobile Telecommunication Service.

In the company's privatization stage (1994–1996), through privatization, Korea Mobile Telecommunications Service became part of SK Group. Since then, the company established foothold in the global market with world’s first commercialization of CDMA technology. In June 1994, the company SK Group becomes largest shareholder. In January 1995, the company achieved 1 million subscriber mark. In June 1996, the company became the third Korean company to be listed in NYSE(ADR).

In the company's international stage (1997–2000), Hankuk Idong Tongshin was transformed to SK Telecom. SK Telecom also became the 6th company in the world to surpass 10 million subscriber mark. The company also began constructing the Northeast Asian CDMA belt encompassing China, Japan, Vietnam, and the whole Asian continent. In March 1997, the company name changed to SK Telecom. In October 1997, the company launched online service NETSGO. In June 1998, the company SK Telink Corp. started commercial overseas call service. In December 1998, the company SK Teletech Corp. launched first mobile handset. In April 1999, the company joined mobile comm. project in Mongolia. In July 1999, the company launched TTL, a telecommunication brand targeting the youth market . In Oct. 1999, the company started wireless internet service n.TOP. In Dec. 1999, the company surpassed 10 million subscriber mark. In Oct. 2000, the company launched world’s first commercial service for CDMA2000. In Dec. 2000, the company won contract on asynchronous IMT-2000 (WCDMA) service.

In the company's ubiquitous age (2001–2007), it began wired/wireless multimedia service era and began efforts to combine and converge mobile communication service. In the meantime, the company started seeking new value-creating models such as M-Commerce and satellite DMB Service. In Jan. 2002, the company completed merger of Sinsegi Communications. In Jan. 2002, the company launched world’s first synchronous IMT-2000 commercial service. In March 2002, the company started global roaming between countries adapting CDMA or GSM services. In April 2002, the company signed contract with Pelephone in Israel to provide wireless Internet platform. In July 2002, the company signed MOU with China Unicom to establish a joint venture. In Nov. 2002, the company launched mobile multimedia service June. In Nov. 2002, the company launched mobile payment service MONETA. In July 2003, the company started commercialized CDMA service in Vietnam. In Aug. 2003, the company June became the world’s first 3G service to get 1 million subscribers. In Feb. 2004, the company won certificate to establish UNISK, a joint corporate with China Unicom. In March 2004, the company launched world’s first DMB satellite. In November 2004, the company opened Melon, wired/wireless music portal service. In April 2005, the company started ‘1mm’ service. In November 2005, the company opened ‘Loview’, a digital photo frame service. In December 2005, the company reached 4 million subscriber base for Melon. In Janunary 2006, the company achieved sales record over 10 trillion KRW. In May 2006 the company commercialized handset-type HSDPA for the first time in the world. In May 2006, the company advanced into the U.S. mobile communication market with Helio. In June 2006 the company signed strategic partnership with China Unicom and purchased CB worth 1 billion USD. In June 2006, the company started commercial Wibro service. In April 2007 the company S-Fone in Vietnam reached 2 million subscriber mark. In April 2007, the company launched TD-SCDMA project with Chinese government.

In 2013 SK Telecom became the first provider in the world to offer a publicly accessible LTE-Advanced network. This coincided with the launch of the Samsung Galaxy S4 LTE-A, which offered a step-up CPU (Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 vs. Qualcomm Snapdragon 600) from the regular model and also LTE-Advanced capabilities. SK Telecom supported this handset at launch.

On July 6, 2013, it was reported that Apple was in talks with Korean mobile carrier, SK Telecom, to release the next gen iPhone on SK's LTE Advanced network.

Sunday, 15 September 2013

Mount Bomun, Daejeon Jung-gu: Dedicated to the Korean Troops in the Battle of Daejeon

Hiyori with the statues of South Korean Troops who fought bravely in the Battle of Daejeon, one of the famous events during Korean War (1950-1953).
Hiyori Kazane was introduced in Sora no Otoshimono the Movie: The Angeloid of Clockwork - during the 61st Anniversary of Korean War (June 25th, 2011).
Mount Bomun (Hanja: 寶文山) with the elevation 457.6 m (1501.3 ft) from sea level is located at Daesa-dong, Daejeon Jung-gu. It is the representative park in Daejeon Metropole, which is beloved by its citizens. There are many mineral springs in the mountain. It is one of the stops for Daejeon Dullesang-gil/대전둘레상길, the walking trail for Daejeon Metropole - same as Jeju Olle-gil in Jeju Province.

You can see many azaleas and cherry blossoms in spring and foliage in the fall. It is popular as a citizen's public health and rest place. Bomun Mountain Castle (Bomun Sanseong/보문산성/寶文山城) and Bomun Temple Site (Bomunsaji/보문사지) are equipped with an outdoor music hall, observatory, entertainment facility, and cable car. Citizens favor visiting the place through the 10 mountain climbing routes that includes the Siru Peak (Sirubong/시루봉) passage, and to 20 mineral springs.

You may see the overview of Jung-gu skyline if you climb up on Jangdaeru/장대루 (Jangdae Pavilion), which is the number 9 monument of Daejeon Metropole inside Bomun Mountain Castle. Besides the mountain climbing, indoor roller rink and soccer playground and other sports facilities are equipped as well as outdoor music hall, cable car, green-land, and youth plaza are usable. In Gochoksa under the Sirubong, you may see a natural stone which looks like Mireuk image.

Saturday, 14 September 2013

Serious Case of Posthumous Kings of Joseon, Part V (FINAL): Crown Prince Uigyeong (King Deokjong)

Do we say that Crown Prince Uikyung likes cats? Surely does because he was buried at the Feline-friendly and Shaking City of Goyang, here in Gyeonggi Province.
This is it. We will close this serious case with the introduction to Crown Prince Uigyeong, posthumous King Deokjong. Crown Prince Uigyeong (Hanja: 懿敬世子; Born: 1438 - Died: 1457) was the eldest son of King Sejo, 7th Monarch of Joseon Dynasty and his consort, Queen Jeonghui of Papyeong Yoon Clan. He was installed as Crown Prince of Joseon in 1455 for the first succession line as the King of Joseon State. Unfortunately, he died two years later in the young age of nineteen.

His consort, Queen Sohye of Cheongju Han Clan (later as Queen Dowager In-soo) was installed as Crown Princess in 1455. When her son, King Seongjong, ascended the throne, she became Queen Dowager (Queen Dowager In-soo). Being bright and erudite, Queen Sohye published a book titled, “Naehun” (內訓/내훈, an educational book for women) to give lessons in etiquette to women and girls.

In 1504, King Yeonsan the Terrible sought revenge against those who deposed and killed his birth mother. It is said that Queen Sohye tragically died a few days after she was hit by the head of King Yeonsan while she was scolding him about his retaliation.

King Deokjong and Queen Sohye was buried at the Royal Tomb of Gyeongneung (경릉), a part of SeoOreung Royal Tomb Cluster (서오릉/西五陵) which is located at Yongdu-dong san 13-1 beonji, Goyang DeogYang-gu, Gyeonggi Province. Crown prince Uigyeong was posthumously known as King Deokjong Hoegan Seonsuk Gongheon Onmun Uigyeong the Great (덕종회간선숙공현온문의경대왕/德宗懷簡宣肅恭顯溫文懿敬大王).



Finally, Case Closed.



Serious Case of Posthumous Kings of Joseon, Part IV: Crown Prince Hyojang (King Jinjong)


Crown Prince Hyojang (Hanja: 孝章世子; Born: 1719 - Died: 1728) was the eldest son of King Yeongjo, 21st Monarch of Joseon Dynasty. He was installed as Crown Prince at the age of seven in 1725, but died in the young age of nine. I think, this is the posthumous king who died in very young age. What a pity.

After King Yeongjo made the Crown Prince Sado die locked in a wooden rice chest, he adopted his eldest grandson (King Jeongjo), the eldest son of the Crown Prince Sado, to be a foster son of the Crown Prince Hyojang, thereby carrying on the royal line. As King Jeongjo ascended the throne, the Crown Prince Hyojang received a posthumous title of King Jinjong as a foster father of the king and later in 1908, received a posthumous title of the Emperor to be the Emperor So of the Korean Empire (진종소황제/眞宗昭皇帝).

His consort, Queen Hyosun of Poong-yang Cho Clan (孝純皇后, 1715-1751) was installed as Crown Princess in 1727, and conferred the title of Hyeonbin (賢嬪) in 1735. She died at the age of 36 without an heir. When King Jeongjo ascended the throne, she received a posthumous title of Queen Hyosun and in 1908, was again granted with the title of the Empress Hyosun with an epithet ‘So.’

He was buried at the Royal Tomb of Yeongneung (영릉/永陵), a part of Paju Samneung Royal Tomb Cluster (파주삼릉/坡州三陵), located at 89 Samneung Avenue/Samneungno, Bongilcheon-ri san 15-1 beonji, Jori-eup, Paju City Gyeonggi Province. He was posthumously known as King Jinjong Ollyang Yemyeong Cheolmun Hyojang the Great (진종온량예명철문효장대왕/眞宗溫良睿明哲文孝章大王).

Serious Case of Posthumous Kings of Joseon, Part III: Crown Prince Hyomyeong (King Munjo)


Crown Prince Hyomyeong (Hanja: 孝明世子, Born: September 18th, 1809 - Died: June 25th, 1830) was the son of the 23rd Monarch of Joseon Dynasty, King Sunjo (1790–1834, r. 1800–1834) and his consort, Queen Sunwon of Andong Kim Clan, father of King Heonjong, 24th King of the Joseon Dynasty. His birth name was Yi Yeong (이영, 李旲). He was also known as Posthumous King Munjo (문조왕/文祖王) a.k.a King Ikjong (익종왕/翼宗王).

He was admitted to Sungkyunkwan in 1817. Two years later, he became Crown Prince of Joseon in the first line of succession for the next king of Joseon. Unfortunately, he died in the young age of 21. His consort, Queen Shinjeong of Poong-yang Cho Clan lived with their son, King Heonjong a.k.a Yi Hwan until her death in 1890. King Munjo and Queen Shinjeong were buried at Royal Tomb of Sureung (/), a part of Donggureung Tomb Cluster (동구릉/東九陵) which is located at 197 Donggureung Avenue/Donggureungno, Inchang-dong san 7-1 beonji, Guri City, Gyeonggi Province. 

His posthumous name is absolutely long, so bear with it. He was posthumously known as King Chewon Cheonhwa Seokgeuk Jeongmyeong  Seongheon Yeongcheol Yeseong Yeon-gyeong Yungdeok Sun-gong Dokhyu Honggyeong Hong-un Seongnyeol Seon-gwang Junsang Yoheum Sun-gong Ugeun Tangjeong Gyecheon Geontong Shinhun Sungmo Geondae Gonhu Gwang-eop Yeongjo Jang-ui Changnyun Haenggeon Baenyeong Gitae Suyu Huibeop Changhui Ipgyeong Hyeongdo Seongheon Sojang Donmun Hyeonmu In-ui Hyomyeong the Great (체원찬화석극정명성헌영철예성연경융덕순공독휴홍경홍운성렬선광준상요흠순공우근탕정계천건통신훈숙모건대곤후광업영조장의창륜행건배녕기태수유희범창희입경형도성헌소장돈문현무인의효명대왕/體元贊化錫極定命聖憲英哲睿誠淵敬隆德純功篤休弘慶洪運盛烈宣光濬祥堯欽舜恭禹勤湯正啓天建通神勳肅謨乾大坤厚廣業永祚莊義彰倫行健配寧基泰垂裕熙範昌禧立經亨道成獻昭章敦文顯武仁懿孝明大王). In 1900, he was promoted into Posthumous Emperor by Korean Empire with the name of Emperor Munjo-Ikjong, Emperor Ik of Korean Empire (문조익황제/文祖翼皇帝).